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  • June 1948.The Oval Office.

    六月 1948年: 橢圓辦公室

  • The cabinet gathers for a conference with President Truman.

    內閣正在與杜魯門總統開會

  • Four days prior, the Soviet Union blockaded the American, British, and French occupied sectors of Berlin.

    四天前,蘇維埃聯邦封鎖了美國,英國與法國所佔據的柏林區域

  • With the divided city located a hundred miles inside the Soviet controlled zone of East Germany,

    那座被瓜分的城市地處於蘇聯所控制的東德境內數百里

  • there's no way for American food and fuel

    造成美國食物與物資

  • the lifeline of its undernourished populace - to get through.

    當地營養缺乏的民眾所倚賴的生命線- 無法輸入

  • The city only has 36 days worth of food remaining and only 45 days of coal.

    城市只剩下36天的食物以及45天的燃煤

  • Allied troops are surrounded, outnumbered 62 to 1.

    西方勢力的部隊被團團包圍,人數相差62比1

  • The cabinet lays out three options: One,American forces could withdraw...

    內閣列出了三個方案: 1.美國軍隊能選擇撤退

  • But that would signal that Western democracies are unable to counter Soviet aggression.

    但那等同承認西方民主國家無法抗衡蘇聯的威脅

  • Two,they could stay in Berlin until the starving population forces them out and accepts Soviet rule out of desperation.

    2. 他們能選擇留在柏林直到飢荒造成絕望的市民將他們驅逐並接受蘇聯統治

  • Or 3 they could send an armed convoy to open the roads,

    或是3. 他們能派遣武裝部隊強行開路

  • but that would start another World War.

    但那會造成另一個世界大戰

  • They advise Truman to withdraw.

    內閣建議楚門撤退

  • Truman says,"We stay in Berlin. Period."

    杜魯門回答: 我們留在柏林 沒什麼好商量的

  • You remember that series on Hiawatha we did a while back?

    你記得我們當初海厄瓦薩的那一系列的影片嗎?

  • Those episodes were sponsored by the folks at DomiNations.

    那些是由文明戰爭手遊的公司所贊助的

  • And we enjoyed doing those so much that when they said -

    而我們非常享受做那系列的過程,因此當他們說

  • "Hey, we're about to introduce the Cold War era into our game,

    嘿,我們要將冷戰時期引進我們的遊戲

  • you want to do some episodes about that?"

    你們想做幾部那個時代的影片嗎?

  • Our answer was "Heck yeah, we do!"

    我們馬上回答: 太棒了,當然啊!

  • So today, we are gonna talk about the Berlin Airlift.

    因此,我們今天要談談柏林空運

  • An event that not only set off the Cold War, but established how it would be fought.

    這事件不但是冷戰時期的引爆點,還制定了那段時間衝突的規則

  • You see, after Germany's surrender in WWII, the Allies divided Germany into four occupation zones.

    當德國於第二次世界大戰投降以後,同盟國將他瓜分為四個佔領區

  • The Soviets in the East, and the Americans, British, and French in the West.

    蘇聯在東,美英法三國在西

  • And Berlin, though it lay in the Soviet zone, was divided as well.

    雖然柏林位於蘇聯區,他同樣地被瓜分

  • The problem was that the Allies had two competing irreconcilable visions for Germany.

    問題在於同盟國中對德國有兩個毫無共識的願景

  • The Soviets had suffered two German invasions in the span of 30 years.

    蘇聯在三十年內相繼被德國侵略兩次

  • They wanted this country broken and subordinate, so it could never threaten Russia again.

    他們要這個國家破碎且服從,永遠無法有實力再威脅俄羅斯

  • They also wanted it to function as a buffer zone to keep the Western powers at bay.

    他們也希望他成為對抗西方勢力的壁壘

  • In the end, Stalin's goal was a communist puppet state in Germany, and the Allies out of Berlin.

    史達林的最終目的是將德國變成一個共產的魁儡政權 並把西方是離逐出柏林

  • But America and Britain believed that Nazi extremism had arisen due to the Great Depression,

    但美國及英國認為納粹主義崛起是因為大蕭條

  • and that the best chance for a peaceful Europe was a prosperous, democratic Germany.

    而一個蓬勃發展的民主德國才能確保歐洲的和平

  • They also hoped that it would be a bulwark against Soviet expansionism.

    他們也希望德國能成為蘇聯擴張主義的障壁

  • So this joint occupation effort was doomed to failure from the outset.

    因此這個共同佔領的計畫一開始便不可能成功

  • But the final showdown came over currency.

    最終造成這個協議破局的導火線是貨幣

  • Berlin was an economic ruin.

    柏林經濟早已崩盤

  • Allied bombing had destroyed most of its industrial foundation,

    同盟國的轟炸摧毀了大部分的工業設施

  • and even three years after the war most Berliners lived in the basements of shattered buildings.

    縱使二戰結束了三年柏林市民仍然居住在斷垣殘壁中

  • Some were living on just nine hundred calories a day.

    有些人一天只攝取九百卡路里

  • The biggest problem was the value of German currency, which was so low that a loaf of bread often cost an entire paycheck.

    而最大的問題出在德國貨幣的價值低到要買一片麵包往往得花上整個月的薪資

  • The city's real currency at this point was American cigarettes,

    當時城裡真正的貨幣是美國雪茄

  • and most civilians survived by a combination of black-market, food aid, and prostitution.

    大部分得市民依賴黑市,食物救濟以及賣身尋求生存

  • The Allies made an attempt at currency reform,

    西方國家試著實施貨幣改革

  • but this attempt failed when the Soviets sabotaged the effort by printing billions of extra notes.

    但蘇聯蓄意多印了數十億的鈔票灌水以破壞這項政策

  • By 1948 the frustrated Western powers were secretly planning to introduce a new currency:

    到了1948年,受挫的西方勢力私下規劃引進一個新的貨幣

  • the Deutsche Mark,

    德國馬克

  • and met behind Stalin's back to discuss forming a West German state.

    他們背著史達林討論組織一個西德聯邦

  • The Soviets found out about this, and in protest, abandoned the Four Power Council.

    蘇聯發現了這個密謀,因此退出了四強會議抗議

  • In response, the Western Allies released the new currency.

    西方國家釋出了新的貨幣作為應對

  • And Stalin had his pretext.

    史達林便找到了理由

  • On June 23rd, Soviet troops encircled Berlin, blockading the road and rail line

    6月23日,蘇聯部隊包圍了柏林,並封鎖了西方國家

  • the Allies had been using to supply the city.

    用以運輸民生資源的公路鐵路

  • The city's power stations, located in the Soviet sector, cut electricity.

    柏林位於蘇聯區域的發電廠將城市斷電

  • The Berlin Blockade had begun, and Truman had to choose between retreat or war.

    柏林封鎖開始了,楚門必須選擇撤退或戰爭

  • But there was another possibility.

    但有另一個可能性

  • The Soviets had interrupted traffic to Berlin before, months earlier.

    蘇聯數個月前曾阻礙了通往柏林的交通

  • But the Allies had continued supplying their troops via air.

    但西方勢力透過空運維持保持了部隊物資的輸送

  • Truman wondered whether a similar airlift could supply all of Berlin.

    杜魯門思索著運用類似的空運供應整個柏林所需的可能性

  • After all, the only way you can stop a plane is to shoot at it...which would be an act of war.

    畢竟要阻止飛機只能開火,但那是宣戰行為

  • American generals dismissed this idea as impossible, but the Royal Air Force thought different.

    美軍將領認為這是異想天開,但英國皇家空軍並不這麼認為

  • After years of war shortages, the British were experts in rationing, and they ran the numbers.

    連年戰亂讓英國人學會精確地計算資源,他們將數據統整

  • They concluded that it would take 4,000 tons of food and fuel per day to keep Berlin from collapsing.

    得到的結論是每天需要4000噸的食物及燃料才能防止柏林陷入危機

  • But to move that much cargo in C-47 transports would mean over 1,300 flights every 24 hours,

    但要用C-47運輸機運輸那麼多物資代表每24小時來回必須超過1300趟

  • and only the Americans had that capacity.

    只有美國有那種能力

  • Under pressure from Truman, the U.S. generals agreed to try.

    在杜魯門的施壓下,美軍決定放手試試

  • The first flights began on June 26th. Despite Soviet threats, the anti-aircraft guns stayed silent.

    第一批運輸機群在6月26日起飛。雖然蘇俄威脅不斷,防空炮始終保持安靜

  • They had called Stalin's bluff.

    如他們所料,史達林只是虛張聲勢

  • But the airlift didn't have enough planes or crews.

    但空運沒有足夠的飛機或機組人員

  • The Air Force tried bringing in air wings from as far away as Guam, but it still wasn't enough.

    美國空軍試圖連遠在關島的飛機都將之投入,但仍然不夠

  • Two weeks in, the airlift was only delivering 1,000 tons per day -

    過了兩個禮拜,空運每天依然只能運輸1000噸的資源

  • - a quarter of what they needed -

    僅僅為所需的四分之一

  • and conditions were perilous.

    情況十分危急

  • The American airport at Tempelhof was a grass field that needed to be patched between landings.

    位於滕珀爾霍夫的美國機場是一個需要在兩個班次之間緊急填補的草坪

  • An apartment block stood directly on the approach path, its roof just 17 feet below the landing gear.

    一棟公寓直直立在落的路線上,屋頂離飛機的起落架不到17英尺

  • Those C-47s were old leftovers from the war.

    那些運輸機是戰爭遺留下來的產物

  • Coal and flour dust, both of which were explosive by the way, filled the plane's cargo holds.

    機艙裡塞滿了煤及麵粉,都是易爆物

  • The 24-hour nature of this operation strained both the airmen and their antiquated planes,

    24小時連續不斷的出任務操勞著飛行員及那些古董飛機

  • and all the while, Soviet Yak fighters buzzed the transports, keeping the pressure on.

    同一時間,蘇聯的戰鬥機如影隨形給予龐大的壓力

  • But despite the shortfall on the cargo quota, the airlift spurred a wave of enthusiasm.

    儘管運輸的數量不如預期,空運的行動激起了廣大的迴響

  • Across Europe, people set aside wartime grudges in an effort to keep Berlin from starving.

    整個歐洲放下了戰時的仇恨,齊心協助柏林免於飢荒

  • Blitz survivors in London sent care packages to Berlin.

    倫敦空襲的生還者寄送了護理包到柏林

  • Many RAF mechanics didn't even wait to be called up...

    許多英國皇家空軍的技師甚至不等待被徵召

  • they just grabbed their tool boxes and hitched a flight to Hamburg.

    他們帶著工具箱就飛往了漢堡

  • Germans, previously hostile to the pilots who had leveled their cities, instead began plying Allied airmen with beer.

    那些對夷平家園的飛行員耿耿於懷的德國人放下成見帶著啤酒慰勞他們

  • It was a chaotic cowboy operation. So Washington dispatched a man to tame it.

    整個行動毫無秩序,因此華盛頓當局派了一個人去整頓

  • General William Tunner was a taciturn man who loved him some charts.

    熱愛圖表的威廉·騰納爾將軍是個沉默寡言的人

  • During the war, he had commanded an airlift that flew supplies over the Himalayas and into occupied China.

    二戰期間他指揮了飛過喜馬拉雅山脈補給中國的空運(駝峰航線)

  • Now he was given the objective of delivering 4,000 tons per day.

    現在他被給予了每天運輸4000噸物資的目標

  • First thing first, he created a tight schedule.

    首先他列出了一個滿檔的時間表

  • Planes would take off and land at precise 3-minute intervals.

    飛機會以三分鐘整的間距起飛及降落

  • The flights would stack at five altitudes, maximizing the number of planes in the air.

    這些航班在高空會相距五個高度,讓空中能容納的航班數最大化

  • When the crews landed, they'd have 30 minutes to unload before taking off again.

    降落後機組人員只有30分鐘卸載輜重

  • Tunner also enforced maintenance checks, brought in fresh U.S. Navy pilots,

    騰納爾也強化了維修及檢驗管制,引進了新的一批飛行員

  • and replaced the C-47s with larger-capacity C-54s.

    並以較高承載量的C-54取代了C-47

  • To make up for the ground crew shortage, he hired Germans to unload cargo and patch runways,

    為了補足地面人勤的缺乏,他雇用了德國人幫忙卸載貨物及修補跑道

  • and after translating the maintenance manuals, he assigned former Luftwaffe mechanics to repair planes.

    當他將使用手冊翻譯為德文後他開始派遣前德國空軍技師去維修飛機

  • Men who had been shooting at each other only three years before, now worked side-by-side.

    三年前仍然互相殘殺的人現在併肩作戰

  • Tunner's shakeup worked.

    騰納爾的計劃成功了

  • On August 12th the airlift reached its target for the first time.

    空運在八月12日首度達成了運輸目標

  • 4,500 tons.

    4500噸

  • Then - Tunner discovered that one of his pilots, Gail Halvorsen, had been making unauthorized cargo drops.

    這時騰納爾發現一名叫做Gail Halvorsen飛行員正在未經許可的投遞資源

  • Every time Halvorsen came in for a landing, he would drop off little handkerchief parachutes

    每次Halvorsen降落前他都會以小手帕做成的降落傘

  • containing parcels of candy to the children that gathered near the runway.

    將糖果空投給跑道附近的兒童 (註: 他被柏林人稱為"巧克力飛行員",其他飛行員之後效法他的行為在柏林前後空投了23噸的糖果)

  • Berliners loved it, and Tunner saw the PR potential.

    這在柏林廣受歡迎,而騰納爾看見了公關的潛力

  • He ordered the candy drops expanded and sent Halvorsen on a press tour back home.

    他命令這項作業擴大,並派遣Halvorsen在美國巡迴受訪 (註: 擴大的計畫稱為"零食作業",甚至擴及東柏林,但在蘇聯抗議後停止)

  • The airlift, a humanitarian effort without traditional military heroes, finally had a public face.

    柏林空運這場沒有傳統戰爭英雄的人道行動終於有了公眾面孔

  • And that PR victory was good news, because winter was coming.

    而公關上的勝利是大好消息,因為凜冬將至

  • The Soviets had been stalling diplomatically for exactly this reason.

    蘇聯政府在外交上拖延不斷正是因為如此

  • Surely, deteriorating weather would put a stop to this airlift for good.

    想必日益惡劣的天氣會迫使行動停止吧?

  • Fog came in heavy that season.

    那年冬天迷霧漫漫

  • At times, it lay so thick on the runways that ground crews had to crawl,

    有時濃到跑道四周的地勤人員被迫爬行

  • for fear of walking into an unseen propeller.

    以免被看不見的飛機輾斃

  • Aircraft landed in zero visibility with iced-up engines.

    運輸機在能見度0引擎結冰的狀況下降落

  • They collided in mid-air, they smashed into mountain ranges.

    他們或在空中車禍,或撞上山壁

  • Exhausted pilots fell asleep at the stick.

    身心俱疲的飛行員在駕駛艙睡著

  • Meteorologists, circling in B-29s, alerted ground control of 15-minute breaks in the weather

    在B-29裡高空盤旋的氣象學家抓著極端天氣中十短暫的空檔通知塔台

  • that would allow flights to get through.

    飛機能降落的時間

  • And somehow they did!

    奇蹟般地,他們成功熬過去了

  • On New Year's Eve, 1948, Allied forces delivered over 6,000 tons a new record.

    在1948新年夜,西方國家運輸了破紀錄的6000噸物資

  • And as winter passed and the weather began to let up,

    隨著冬天的過去及氣候回溫

  • the airlift had began to deliver more supplies than the city had ever received by rail.

    空運運輸的輜重漸漸地超越了當初地面運輸所能達成的量

  • This success emboldened anti-Soviet politicians within Berlin.

    這項計畫的成功強化了反蘇維埃政權的政治人物的支持度

  • In September, Ernst Reuter, elected mayor in 1947 but blocked from taking his seat by the Soviets,

    九月時恩斯特·羅伊特,一位在1947年獲選為市長但被蘇聯阻礙上任的政治人物

  • gave a fiery speech before a crowd of 300,000 Berliners,

    在300,000柏林人面前激情的演說

  • imploring the world not to abandon the city to totalitarianism.

    祈求世界不要將柏林棄於集權主義的魔掌

  • That December, he won the mayor's office, appearing around the world as the face of free Berlin.

    當年12月他獲選為市長,在全世界成為自由柏林的象徵

  • In retaliation, the Soviets installed their own communist city government in East Berlin.

    蘇聯在東柏林設置了自己的共產政府反擊

  • Stalin's strategy had backfired.

    史達林的政策玩火自焚了

  • Instead of preventing a West German state, he had fueled it.

    他不但沒有如計畫中的遏止了一個西德政府,反而促使了他的形成

  • Far from revealing Allied weaknesses, he had allowed them to take the moral high ground -

    不但沒有挫西方民主國家的銳氣,反而讓他們站上了道德制高點

  • - demonstrating their commitment and turning Germans from an occupied people into comrades.

    宣示了他們的決心且讓他們把一群受佔領的市民化為併肩作戰的同袍

  • And the blockade was damaging East Berlin's economy.

    而且封鎖線正漸漸殘害東德經濟

  • Its factories couldn't function without goods from the Western sector.

    他的工廠沒有西德的原料無法運作

  • The Soviets had been outmaneuvered.

    蘇維埃政權被擺了一道

  • On May 12th, 1949, Soviet soldiers removed the roadblocks,

    1949年五月12日,蘇聯士兵移除了路障

  • and allowed the first American supply convoy to pass into Berlin.

    並允許第一個美國運輸隊駛進柏林

  • That road would never close again.

    那條路永遠不會再被封鎖了

  • In 15 months of operation the airlift delivered over 2.4 million tons of food and fuel, saving Berlin from famine.

    柏林空運在15個月內運輸了超過兩千四百萬噸的食物及燃料,避免了飢荒

  • 79 Allied personnel and German civilians lost their lives to the effort, and the world would never be the same.

    79名機組人員及市民在行動中犧牲生命改變了世界情勢

  • Stalin's willingness to starve civilians marked a turning point,

    史達林那個不顧人民死活的真面目成了轉捩點

  • uniting Western Europe in a coalition to contain Soviet influence.

    讓西歐一致對抗蘇聯的擴張

  • A month before the end of the blockade, this new alliance -

    封鎖結束前一個月,這個新組織

  • the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO -

    北大西洋公約組織 - 簡稱北約

  • was formally signed into being.

    正式簽署成立

  • And within weeks, West Germany formally became its own country, followed by Communist East Germany.

    而數周內西德正式成為獨立國家,東德緊接在後

  • Europe was divided in half, and two months later the Soviets tested their first atomic bomb.

    歐洲就此一分為二,兩個月後蘇聯測試了第一顆原子彈

  • It was the beginning of a new kind of war.

    此時崛起了新一代的戰爭模式

  • One of political influence, fought by great powers over proxy states.

    一個著重政治影響力,世界強權透過其他國家打的代理人戰爭

  • A war of threat and restraint, where governments tested just how far they could push the other,

    一個充滿自制及互相威脅,雙方政府互相挑戰底線

  • without starting a full-scale conflict.

    避免大規模衝突的戰爭

  • But the Soviets and the Americans would never again square off as directly as they did during the airlift.

    但美國跟蘇聯不會再像柏林空運那樣正面對決

  • When nuclear armament is in play, that is just not the kind of gamble you take.

    當核武列入考量時,這不再是能放手一搏的事情了

  • Thanks again to our friends at DomiNations for sponsoring this episode.

    再次感謝文明戰爭那裡的朋友贊助

  • We'll see you soon!

    我們下次見!

June 1948.The Oval Office.

六月 1948年: 橢圓辦公室

字幕與單字

影片操作 你可以在這邊進行「影片」的調整,以及「字幕」的顯示

B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 柏林 蘇聯 德國 飛行員 飛機 戰爭

柏林空襲。冷戰開始,額外的歷史 (Berlin Airlift: The Cold War Begins - Extra History)

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    winnielin0604   發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
影片單字