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  • In J.R.R.'s world,

    在托爾金的奇幻世界

  • Gandalf is one of five wizards sent by the Valar

    甘道夫屬於諸神派遣的五名巫師

  • to guide the inhabitants of Middle Earth

    前往指引中土大陸之民

  • in their struggles against the dark force of Sauron.

    對抗索倫與其黑暗之力

  • Gandalf's body was mortal,

    甘道夫的肉身與凡人無異

  • subject to the physical rules of Middle Earth,

    受到中土物理法則的支配

  • but his spirit was immortal,

    然而靈魂不滅

  • as seen when he died as Gandalf the Grey

    因此灰袍甘道夫戰死後

  • and resurrected as Gandalf the White.

    仍能重生為白袍甘道夫

  • According to the Wachowski's script,

    根據華卓斯基的劇本

  • an awakened human only has to link up

    覺醒的人類只要連結至母體

  • and hack the neon binary code of the Matrix

    駭進母體的系統 竄改二元代碼

  • to learn how to fly a helicopter

    就可以在數秒內學會駕駛直升機

  • in a matter of seconds.

    如果你是救世主

  • Or if you are the One,

    或是救世主之一

  • or one of the Ones,

    你連駕直升機都不用

  • you don't even need a helicopter,

    戴副墨鏡耍酷就可以上天下地

  • you just need a cool pair of shades.

    柴郡貓可以用頭玩拋接球

  • Cheshire cats can juggle their own heads.

    iPad 早就落伍了

  • iPads are rudimentary.

    一場魁地奇比賽

  • No Quidditch match ends

    沒抓到金探子就不能結束

  • until the Golden Snitch is caught.

    至於生命、宇宙與一切的終極答案 (*出自《銀河系漫遊指南》)

  • And the answer to the ultimate question of life,

    正是42 (*出自《銀河系漫遊指南》)

  • the universe,

    如同真實生活

  • and everything

    虛構的世界要持續運作

  • is most certainly 42.

    必須依靠一系列物理和社會法則

  • Just like real life,

    這些錯綜複雜的世界 正是因此才

  • fictional worlds operate consistently

    足夠可信

  • within a spectrum of physical and societal rules.

    易於理解

  • That's what makes these intricate worlds

    而且值得更深入探索

  • believable,

    現實中,萬有引力定律

  • comprehensible,

    讓哈利波特全七集

  • and worth exploring.

    穩穩立於全世界無數書架上

  • In real life, the Law of Gravity

    我們都知道這是真的

  • holds seven book sets of "Harry Potter"

    但我們也知道

  • to millions of bookshelves around the world.

    打從 J.K. 羅琳寫下這些文字

  • We know this to be true,

    寫下巫師

  • but we also know

    魔杖

  • that ever since J.K. typed the words

    以及「溫加顛拉維阿薩」(飄浮咒語)

  • wizard,

    萬有引力定律便不再存在於

  • wand,

    安坐於書架上的 這數兆書頁之內了

  • and "Wingardium Leviosa,"

    科幻、奇幻小說家

  • that Law of Gravity has ceased to exist

    是貨真價實地建造世界

  • on the trillions of pages

    他們創造規則

  • resting between those bookends.

    地圖

  • Authors of science fiction and fantasy

    系譜

  • literally build worlds.

    語言

  • They make rules,

    文化

  • maps,

    宇宙

  • lineages,

    宇宙之外又有不同的宇宙

  • languages,

    從這些世界中衍生出

  • cultures,

    一個一個又一個故事

  • universes,

    成功的話

  • alternate universes within universes,

    讀者就能理解

  • and from those worlds sprout

    這些虛構世界與其中的規則

  • story, after story, after story.

    理解的程度甚至不輸給

  • When it's done well,

    真正生活其中的角色

  • readers can understand

    有時候

  • fictional worlds and their rules

    甚至可以媲美或超過

  • just as well as the characters

    讀者對真實世界的理解

  • that live in them do

    但到底要怎麼做?

  • and sometimes,

    當這些由人隨手寫在紙上的文字

  • just as well or even better

    反射光線進入我們的眼睛

  • than the reader understands

    傳輸訊號至腦部

  • the world outside of the book.

    我們憑邏輯與情感 將這些訊號解讀成

  • But how?

    複雜的故事

  • How can human-made squiggles on a page

    驅使我們爭鬥

  • reflect lights into our eyes

    流淚

  • that send signals to our brains

    歌唱

  • that we logically and emotionally decode

    與思考

  • as complex narratives

    為什麼這些文字強大到

  • that move us to fight,

    不僅足以支撐這個

  • cry,

    完全由作者一手創造的世界

  • sing,

    甚至能改變讀者 對真實世界的觀感

  • and think,

    使讀者沉浸其中,無法自拔

  • that are strong enough

    直到讀完最後一頁的文字?

  • not only to hold up a world

    我不知道有沒有人曉得

  • that is completely invented by the author,

    這個問題的答案

  • but also to change the reader's perspective

    但每天都有人創造出 虛構的奇妙世界

  • on the real world that resumes

    在我們腦海中

  • only when the final squiggle is reached?

    或打進電腦裡

  • I'm not sure anyone knows

    或是寫在街上那家飯館的餐巾上

  • the answer to that question,

    事實是,只要你有想像力

  • yet fantastical, fictional worlds are created everyday

    而且也願意──打個比方──

  • in our minds,

    生活在你自己的世界裡

  • on computers,

    你就可以開始寫小說了

  • even on napkins at the restaurant down the street.

    我沒有夢到霍格華茲

  • The truth is your imagination

    或是星際大戰裡的酒館

  • and a willingness to, figuratively,

    不過我寫了幾部科幻驚悚小說

  • live in your own world

    給小孩或給青少年看

  • are all you need to get started writing a novel.

    以下是幾個我用過的問題和方法

  • I didn't dream up Hogwarts

    幫助自己建立這幾個故事 所發生的世界

  • or the Star Wars' Cantina,

    我會從基本的時間地點開始

  • but I have written some science thrillers

    先決定這是一個奇幻世界

  • for kids and young adults.

    或是奠基於現實的未來故事

  • Here are some questions and methods I've used

    知道故事發生在哪裡 是很重要的

  • to help build the worlds

    時間又是在過去的歷史

  • in which those books take place.

    現代

  • I start with a basic place and time.

    還是未來

  • Whether that's a fantasy world

    我喜歡畫一條時間軸

  • or a futuristic setting in the real world,

    來紀錄這個世界形成的過程

  • it's important to know where you are

    哪些歷史事件 使這世界變成如今的樣貌?

  • and whether you're working in the past,

    然後我會腦力激盪出 各種問題的答案

  • present,

    來勾勒虛構世界的細節

  • or future.

    這裡存在什麼規則?

  • I like to create a timeline

    這可以從萬有引力的存在

  • showing how the world came to be.

    (或不存在)

  • What past events have shaped the way it is now?

    到社會規範

  • Then I brainstorm answers to questions

    然後我會腦力激盪出各種問題的答案

  • that draw out the details of my fictional world.

    這裡有怎樣的政府?

  • What rules are in place here?

    是誰掌權

  • This covers everything from laws of gravity

    而誰沒有?

  • (or not)

    這裡的人信仰什麼?

  • to the rules of society

    這個社會最推崇的是什麼?

  • and the punishments for individuals who break them.

    接著可以開始構思日常生活了

  • What kind of government does this world have?

    這個世界的天氣如何?

  • Who has power,

    居民都住在什麼地方?

  • and who doesn't?

    去哪工作?

  • What do people believe in here?

    到哪上學?

  • And what does this society value most?

    吃些什麼?

  • Then it's time to think about day-to-day life.

    玩些什麼?

  • What's the weather like in this world?

    他們待年輕人態度如何?

  • Where do the inhabitants live

    待老人如何?

  • and work

    他們和這世界的 動植物是什麼關係?

  • and go to school?

    動植物長什麼樣子?

  • What do they eat

    科技如何?

  • and how do they play?

    交通如何?

  • How do they treat their young

    彼此如何溝通?

  • and their old?

    有甚麼管道可以獲得資訊?

  • What relationships do they have

    太多問題可以想了!

  • with the animals and plants of the world?

    只要花點時間在這些事情上

  • And what do those animals and plants look like?

    找出這些問題的解答

  • What kind of technology exists?

    你就已經著手 創造屬於自己的世界了

  • Transportation?

    一旦你對這個世界夠熟悉

  • Communication?

    而你也希望讀者 和你了解它的程度一樣多

  • Access to information?

    就把人物放進這個世界

  • There's so much to think about!

    看看會發生什麼

  • So, spend some time living in those tasks

    別忘了問自己

  • and the answers to those questions,

    「你創造的這個世界

  • and you're well on your way

    會如何影響生活中的角色?

  • to building your own fictional world.

    可能會產生哪種衝突?」

  • Once you know your world

    回答完這些問題

  • as well as you hope your reader will,

    你就有屬於自己的故事了

  • set your characters free in it

    未來的世界建築師,祝好運!

  • and see what happens.

  • And ask yourself,

  • "How does this world you created

  • shape the individuals who live in it?

  • And what kind of conflict is likely to emerge?"

  • Answer those questions,

  • and you have your story.

  • Good luck future world-builder!

In J.R.R.'s world,

在托爾金的奇幻世界

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 世界 甘道夫 讀者 虛構 萬有引力

【TED-Ed】如何建構一個奇幻世界 (How to build a fictional world - Kate Messner)

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    Sofi 發佈於 2014 年 04 月 15 日
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