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  • My job is to design, build and study

    我的工作是設計、建造和研究

  • robots that communicate with people.

    那些能夠與人交流的機器人。

  • But this story doesn't start with robotics at all,

    不過這個故事不是從機器人說起,

  • it starts with animation.

    而是要從動畫說起。

  • When I first saw Pixar's "Luxo Jr.,"

    當我第一次看到皮克斯的

  • I was amazed by how much emotion

    我驚呆了,

  • they could put into something

    一個如此微不足道的檯燈

  • as trivial as a desk lamp.

    竟能表現如此多的感情。

  • I mean, look at them -- at the end of this movie,

    你看看他們啊!電影結尾的時候,

  • you actually feel something for two pieces of furniture.

    你真的開始喜歡上這兩件小小的家具了。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And I said, I have to learn how to do this.

    我對自己說,我要學會做這樣的東西。

  • So I made a really bad career decision.

    所以我在職涯上做了一個很差的決定,

  • And that's what my mom was like when I did it.

    我做出這個決定的時候,我媽媽就是這樣的。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I left a very cozy tech job in Israel

    我辭去了在以色列一個軟體公司的

  • at a nice software company and I moved to New York

    一份舒服的技術工作,而搬到了紐約

  • to study animation.

    去學習動畫。

  • And there I lived

    在那裡

  • in a collapsing apartment building

    我和我的室友住在哈林區

  • I'm not using this phrase metaphorically,

    這並不是比喻,

  • the ceiling actually collapsed one day

    有一天我們客廳的天花板

  • in our living room.

    真的塌下來了,

  • Whenever they did those news stories

    每次新聞報導紐約的違章建築時,

  • they would put the report in front of our building.

    他們都會跑到我們的大樓下進行採訪。

  • As kind of like a backdrop

    就好像讓你看看現場有多糟糕一樣。

  • Anyway, during the day I went to school and at night

    言歸正傳,我白天上學,

  • I would sit and draw frame by frame

    晚上我不停地一幅一幅地用鉛筆畫著畫。

  • And I learned two surprising lessons --

    我學到了兩個令人驚訝的事情 --

  • one of them was that

    其中一個是:

  • when you want to arouse emotions,

    當你想要喚起某些情感時,

  • it doesn't matter so much how something looks,

    外觀並不算太重要,

  • it's all in the motion -- it's in the timing

    關鍵是動作 -- 物體運動的時機。

  • of how the thing moves.

    關鍵是動作 -- 物體運動的時機。

  • And the second, was something

    第二個是一位老師告訴我們的。

  • He actually did the weasel in Ice Age.

    他製作了電影《冰原歷險記》的黃鼠狼。

  • And he said:

    他說:

  • "As an animator you are not

    “作為一個動畫製作者,

  • So, if you want to find the

    所以如果你要為一個角色

  • don't think about it, go use your body to find it --

    不要想,用你的身體找到它,

  • stand in front of a mirror, act it out

    站在鏡子面前,在攝影機前,演出來,

  • in front of a camera -- whatever you need.

    做出你需要做的。

  • And then put it back in your character.

    然後再把這個動作放在你的角色上。

  • A year later I found myself at MIT

    一年以後,我去了麻省理工學的

  • in the robotic life group, it was one of the first groups

    機器人生命小組,

  • researching the relationships

    這是最早開始研究人類和

  • And I still had this dream to make

    我依然有個夢想

  • an actual, physical Luxo Jr. lamp.

    做出真正的、真實的頑皮跳跳燈。

  • But I found that robots didn't move at all

    但是我發現機器人

  • in this engaging way that I was used to

    完全不按照動畫課程中那種

  • for my animation studies.

    引人入勝的方式移動。

  • Instead, they were all --

    相反的,他們都 --

  • how should I put it, they were all kind of robotic.

    該怎麼說呢?他們都有點兒機器人。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • And I thought, what if I took whatever

    我就想,如果我可以把

  • and used that to design my robotic desk lamp.

    應用在設計我的機器人檯燈會怎樣?

  • So I went and designed frame by frame

    因此我一幅一幅的設計,

  • to try to make this robot

    試圖讓這個機器人

  • as graceful and engaging as possible.

    盡量優雅且有吸引力。

  • And here when you see the robot interacting with me

    這裡你可以看到這個桌子上的機器人

  • on a desktop.

    在跟我互動,

  • And I'm actually redesigning the robot so,

    我其實是在重新設計這個機器人,

  • unbeknownst to itself,

    而這個機器人完全不知道,

  • it's kind of digging its own grave by helping me.

    它幫我,其實是在自掘墳墓呢。

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I wanted it to be less of a mechanical structure

    比起把它做成一個照明的機械,

  • giving me light,

    比起把它做成一個照明的機械,

  • and more of a helpful, kind of quiet apprentice

    我更想要一個能幫忙的、安靜的學徒,

  • that's always there when you need

    隨時滿足你的需求卻不打擾你。

  • And when, for example, I'm looking for a battery

    比如,當我要找一個我怎麼也

  • that I can't find,

    找不到的電池時,

  • in a subtle way, it will show me where the battery is.

    它可以巧妙地提醒我電池在哪裡。

  • So you can see my confusion here.

    你看到我的困惑了嗎?

  • I'm not an actor.

    我不是一個演員。

  • And I want you to notice how the same

    我希望你們注意到,

  • mechanical structure can at one point,

    同一個機械如何在前一刻

  • just by the way it moves seem gentle and caring --

    非常溫柔,充滿關懷,

  • and in the other case, seem

    下一刻又顯得非常暴力,有進攻性。

  • And it's the same structure,

    一模一樣的結構,改變的僅僅是動作。

  • Actor: "You want to know something?

    演員:”你想知道嗎?你真的想知道嗎?

  • He was already dead!

    他已經死了!

  • Just laying there, eyes glazed over!"

    他就躺在那裡,目光呆滯! “

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • But, moving in graceful ways is just one

    但是,以一種優雅的方式移動只是這整個

  • called human-robot interaction.

    人類機器人互動結構的一塊基石。

  • I was at the time doing my Ph.D.,

    那時候我正在攻讀博士學位,

  • I was working on human robot teamwork;

    我在一個研究人類機器人的團隊,

  • teams of humans and robots working together.

    也就是人類和機器人一起合作。

  • I was studying the engineering,

    我在學習團隊合作的工程學,

  • the psychology, the philosophy of teamwork.

    心理學和哲學。

  • And at the same time I found myself

    同時,我意識到我自己

  • in my own kind of teamwork situation

    和我的一個好朋友,他今天也在這裡,

  • with a good friend of mine who is actually here.

    碰到了一個團隊合作的情境。

  • And in that situation we can easily imagine robots

    在那個情境中,我們很容易想像

  • in the near future being there with us.

    不久的將來機器人會和我們在一起。

  • It was after a Passover seder.

    那是在一個逾越節家宴結束後,

  • We were folding up a lot of folding chairs,

    我們要收起大量的折疊椅,

  • and I was amazed at how quickly

    我對於我們迅速找到了

  • Everybody did their own part.

    每個人都做了自己的那部分,

  • We didn't have to divide our tasks.

    無需分工,

  • We didn't have to communicate verbally about this.

    無需特意口頭溝通。

  • It all just happened.

    就這樣發生了。

  • And I thought,

    於是我想,

  • humans and robots don't look at all like this.

    人類和機器人的互動卻完全不是這樣。

  • When humans and robots interact,

    當人類和機器人互動的時候,

  • it's much more like a chess game.

    就好像他們在下棋。

  • The human does a thing,

    人類走一步,

  • the robot analyzes whatever the human did,

    機器人對此分析一下,

  • then the robot decides what to do next,

    然後機器人決定接下來怎麼做,

  • plans it and does it.

    計劃好,走下一步。

  • And then the human waits, until it's their turn again.

    這時候人類就等著,

  • So, it's much more like a chess game

    所以,人類和機器人的互動更像下棋,

  • and that makes sense because chess is great

    這很好理解,因為

  • for mathematicians and computer scientists.

    對數學家和電腦科學家來說,

  • It's all about information analysis,

    它們都是關於資料分析、

  • decision making and planning.

    決策和計劃。

  • But I wanted my robot to be less of a chess player,

    但比起下棋,我更希望我的機器人

  • and more like a doer

    是一個行動者,

  • that just clicks and works together.

    可以和人類有默契地一起工作。

  • So I made my second horrible career choice:

    於是我在我的職涯上

  • I decided to study acting for a semester.

    我決定學習一學期的表演課程。

  • I took off from a Ph.D. I went to acting classes.

    我放下了我的博士課程,去上了表演課。

  • I actually participated in a play,

    我還參與了一個戲劇,

  • I hope theres no video of that around still.

    希望現在已經找不到那段影片了。

  • And I got every book I could find about acting,

    我看遍每一本關於表演的書,

  • including one from the 19th century

    其中包括一本從圖書館裡借來的

  • that I got from the library.

    19世紀的書。

  • And I was really amazed because my

    我震驚地發現我的名字是

  • the previous name was in 1889. (Laughter)

    先前的一個名字是1889年。

  • And this book was kind of waiting for 100 years

    這本書已經躺了100年了,

  • to be rediscovered for robotics.

    只為了藉機器人之名被重新發現。

  • And this book shows actors

    這本書教演員

  • how to move every muscle in the body

    如何調動他們身體上的每塊肌肉

  • to match every kind of emotion

    來表達他們想要表達的情感。

  • But the real revelation was

    真正讓我受到啟示的是

  • when I learned about method acting.

    方法演技。

  • It became very popular in the 20th century.

    它在20世紀的時候非常流行。

  • And method acting said, you don't have

    方法演技指出,你不需要

  • Instead you have to use your body

    相反,你可以用你的身體找到對的動作。

  • You have to use your sense memory

    你應該運用你的感覺記憶,

  • to reconstruct the emotions and kind of

    去重新建構情感,

  • think with your body to find the right expression.

    用你的身體找到對的表情。

  • Improvise, play off yor scene partner.

    即興發揮,根據你的場景搭配。

  • And this came at the same time

    這個時候我也正讀到

  • in cognitive psychology called embodied cognition.

    認知心理學中的體現認知,

  • Which also talks about the same ideas --

    這也談到同樣的觀點 --

  • We use our bodies to think,

    我們用我們的身體思考,

  • we don't just think with our brains

    我們並不是用大腦思考,用身體表現,

  • but our bodies feed back into our brain

    而是我們的身體反饋給大腦

  • to generate the way that we behave.

    並做出相對應的動作,

  • And it was like a lightning bolt.

    這對我好像一道靈光,

  • I went back to my office.

    我馬上回了我的辦公室。

  • I wrote this paper -- which I never really published

    我寫了一篇論文,從來也沒發表過,

  • called "Acting Lessons for Artificial Intelligence."

    叫做《人工智慧的表演課》。

  • And I even took another month

    我甚至花了一個月的時間

  • to do what was then the first theater play

    去做當時第一部由人類和機器人

  • with a human and a robot acting together.

    一起主演的戲劇。

  • That's what you saw before with the actors.

    你之前看到的演員和

  • And I thought:

    當時我就想:

  • How can we make an artificial intelligence model --

    我們怎樣可以做出一個人工智慧 --

  • computer, computational model --

    電腦、程式模型 --

  • that will model some of these ideas of improvisation,

    能夠即興發揮、

  • of taking risks, of taking chances,

    會冒險、會投機

  • even of making mistakes.

    甚至會犯錯。

  • Maybe it can make for better robotic teammates.

    它可能會是更好的機器人隊友。

  • So I worked for quite a long time on these models

    因此我花了很多時間去研究這些模型,

  • and I implemented them on a number of robots.

    我試用在幾個機器人身上。

  • Here you can see a very early example

    這裡你可以看到一個早期的例子,

  • with the robots trying to use this

    這個機器人試圖運用體現人工智慧

  • to try to match my movements

    盡量地模仿我的動作,

  • sort of like a game.

    就好像遊戲一樣。

  • Let's look at it.

    我們來看一下。

  • You can see when I psych it out, it gets fooled.

    你可以看到我可以糊弄它。

  • And it's a little bit like what you might see actors do

    有點像你看到的演員們

  • when they try to mirror each other

    互相模仿對方

  • to find the right synchrony between them.

    只為了找到他們之間的默契。

  • And then, I did another experiment,

    然後,我又做了另外一個實驗,

  • and I got people off the street

    我從大街上拉人來使用這個機器人檯燈,

  • and try out this idea of embodied

    試驗體現人工智慧。

  • So, I actually used two kinds

    其實,同樣的機器人我用了兩種大腦,

  • The robot is the same lamp that you saw,

    機器人就是你看到的這個檯燈,

  • and I put in it two brains.

    我給了它兩種大腦。

  • For one half of the people,

    對一半的人,

  • I put in a brain that's kind of the traditional,

    我放入了一個傳統的、

  • calculated robotic brain.

    機械計算的大腦。

  • It waits for its turn, it analyzes everything, it plans.

    它會等待,會分析,會計劃,

  • Let's call it the calculated brain.

    我們暫且稱它為“會計算的大腦”。

  • The other got more the stage actor, risk taker brain.

    給另一半人則是那個

  • Let's call it the adventurous brain.

    我們暫且稱它為“愛冒險的大腦”,

  • It sometimes acts without knowing

    有的時候它在並不知道

  • It sometimes makes mistakes and corrects them.

    有的時候它會犯錯然後去糾正。

  • And I had them do this very tedious task

    我讓他們完成一項無比乏味的任務,

  • that took almost 20 minutes

    這個任務要花近20分鐘,

  • and they had to work together.

    他們必須一起合作完成,

  • Somehow simulating like a factory job

    有點類似在工廠工作,

  • of repetitively doing the same thing.

    機械地重複一件事情。

  • And what I found was that people actually loved

    我發現人們非常喜歡

  • the adventurous robot.

    那個“愛冒險的機器人”。

  • And they thought it was more intelligent,

    他們覺得它非常聰明,

  • more committed, a better member of the team,

    更投入,是一個很好的團隊成員,

  • contributed to the success of the team more.

    一起幫助團隊成功。

  • They even called it 'he' and 'she,'

    他們甚至稱它為“他”和“她”,

  • whereas people with the calculated brain called it 'it.'

    而另外那些人稱那個

  • And nobody ever called it 'he' or 'she'.

    沒有人稱它為“他”或“她”。

  • When they talked about it after the task

    任務完成後,

  • with the adventurous brain,

    那些與“會冒險的大腦”互動的人說:

  • they said, "By the end, we were good

    “最後,我們成了好朋友,

  • Whatever that means.

    不管那是啥意思

  • (Laughter) Sounds painful.

    (笑聲)

  • Whereas the people with the calculated brain

    然而,那些與“會計算的大腦”互動的人

  • said it was just like a lazy apprentice.

    則說“它就像一個懶徒弟,

  • It only did what it was supposed

    只會做最基本的。 “

  • Which is almost what people expect robots to do,

    這基本上和同人對機器人期待一樣,

  • so I was surprised that people

    所以我有些驚訝,比起那些機器人專家,

  • of robots, than what anybody in robotics

    人們居然對機器人有更高的期望。

  • And in a way, I thought, maybe it's time --

    但從另一個角度,我想該是時候了 --

  • just like method acting changed the way

    就像方法演技改變了

  • people thought about acting in the 19th century,

    19世紀人們思考表演的方式一樣,

  • from going from the very calculated,

    改變這種通過精確計算的

  • planned way of behaving,

    行為方式,

  • to a more intuitive, risk-taking,

    而轉向一種更直覺的、冒險的、

  • Maybe it's time for robots

    也許應該是

  • to have the same kind of revolution.

    機器人革命的時刻了。

  • A few years later,

    幾年後,

  • I was at my next research job

    我在亞特蘭大的喬治理工大學做研究,

  • and I was working in a group

    我在一個研究機器人音樂家的

  • dealing with robotic musicians.

    小組工作。

  • And I thought, music, that's the perfect place

    我想,音樂是正好是

  • to look at teamwork, coordination,

    研究團隊合作、協調、

  • timing, improvisation --

    時機和即興表演的領域,

  • and we just got this robot playing marimba.

    我們有這個玩馬林巴的機器人。

  • Marimba, for everybody who was like me,

    和我一樣對樂器不在行的朋友,馬林巴是

  • it was this huge, wooden xylophone.

    一個巨大的木琴。

  • And, when I was looking at this,

    當我看著這個,

  • I looked at other works in

    又看了那些人類和機器人的即興互動,

  • yes, there are other works in

    沒錯,還有人和機器人的即興互動

  • and they were also a little bit like a chess game.

    也都差不多像是一個下棋的互動。

  • The human would play,

    人類走一步,

  • the robot would analyze what was played,

    機器人對此分析,

  • would improvise their own part.

    然後決定下一步。

  • So, this is what musicians called

    音樂家們稱其為

  • a call and response interaction,

    呼叫和應答互動,

  • and it also fits very well, robots

    這對機器人和人工智慧很合適。

  • But I thought, if I use the same ideas I used

    但是我想,如果我可以運用

  • in the theater play and in the teamwork studies,

    戲劇表演和團隊合作中的研究發現,

  • maybe I can make the robots jam together

    也許我可以讓這些機器人

  • like a band.

    組成一個樂隊,

  • Everybody's riffing off each other,

    每個人都在即興發揮,

  • And so, I tried to do the same

    於是這次我嘗試用音樂做試驗,

  • where the robot doesn't really know

    機器人並不知道

  • what it's about to play.

    它會演奏什麼,

  • It just sort of moves its body

    它就這樣移動它的身體,

  • and uses opportunities to play,

    找機會演奏,

  • And does what my jazz teacher

    做出我在17歲時爵士老師教我的事情。

  • She said, when you improvise,

    她說,當你在即興表演時,

  • sometimes you don't know what you're doing

    有時你並不知道你在做什麼,

  • and you're still doing it.

    但是你還是繼續做。

  • And so I tried to make a robot that doesn't ac