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  • At the annual Athenian drama festival in 426 BC,

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • a comic play called The Babylonians,

    西元前 426 年, 在雅典年度的戲劇節

  • written by a young poet named Aristophanes,

    有一齣喜劇叫做《巴比倫人》,

  • was awarded first prize.

    是由阿里斯多芬尼斯 這位年輕詩人所寫的,

  • But the play's depiction of Athens' conduct during the Peloponnesian War

    該作品得到了第一名。

  • was so controversial that afterwards,

    但這齣劇中對於伯羅奔尼撒 戰爭期間雅典的作為

  • a politician named Kleon took Aristophanes to court

    有非常爭議性的描寫,以致於後來

  • for "slandering the people of Athens in the presence of foreigners."

    有一位名叫克萊昂得政客, 把阿里斯多芬尼斯送上法庭,

  • Aristophanes struck back two years later with a play called The Knights.

    理由是「在外國人 面前誹謗雅典人」。

  • In it, he openly mocked Kleon,

    阿里斯多芬尼斯兩年後再次反擊, 推出一齣劇《騎士》。

  • ending with Kleon's character working as a lowly sausage seller

    在該劇中,他公開嘲弄克萊昂,

  • outside the city gates.

    結局是克萊昂的角色 在城門外做著低下的

  • This style of satire was a consequence

    香腸銷售員工作。

  • of the unrestricted democracy of 5th century Athens

    會出現這種諷刺風格,是因為

  • and is now called "Old Comedy."

    在第五世紀的雅典, 民主不受限制,

  • Aristophanes' plays, the world's earliest surviving comic dramas,

    這種風格現在稱為「舊喜劇」。

  • are stuffed full of parodies, songs, sexual jokes, and surreal fantasy.

    阿里斯多芬尼斯的戲劇是 世界上存留下來最早的喜劇戲劇,

  • They often use wild situations,

    充滿了滑稽模仿、歌曲、 性笑話,以及超現實的幻想。

  • like a hero flying to heaven on a dung beetle,

    這類戲劇通常會用荒唐的情境,

  • or a net cast over a house to keep the owner's father trapped inside,

    比如英雄騎著蜣螂飛向天堂,

  • in order to subvert audience expectations.

    或是在一間房子上蓋著一張網 來把屋主的父親困在屋內,

  • And they've shaped how comedy's been written and performed ever since.

    目的是要顛覆觀眾的期望。

  • The word "comedy" comes from the Ancient Greek "komos," – revel,

    它們形塑出了後續喜劇的 編劇和表演方式。

  • and "oide," – singing,

    「喜劇(comedy)」這個詞來自 古希臘文「komos」——狂歡,

  • and it differed from its companion art form, "tragedy" in many ways.

    以及「oide」——唱歌,

  • Where ancient Athenian tragedies dealt with the downfall of the high and mighty,

    喜劇和另一種相應的藝術形式 「悲劇」,在很多方面不同。

  • their comedies usually ended happily.

    古雅典悲劇處理的是高位、 強大的人墮落的故事,

  • And where tragedy almost always borrowed stories from legend,

    而喜劇總是快樂地收場。

  • comedy addressed current events.

    悲劇總喜歡引用傳說的故事,

  • Aristophanes' comedies celebrated ordinary people and attacked the powerful.

    喜劇則是用時事。

  • His targets were arrogant politicians,

    阿里斯多芬尼斯的喜劇會 讚頌凡人、攻擊當權者。

  • war-mongering generals,

    他針對的目標是自大的政客、

  • and self-important intellectuals,

    製造戰爭的將軍,

  • exactly the people who sat in the front row of the theatre,

    以及妄自尊大的知識分子,

  • where everyone could see their reactions.

    正是在劇院中會坐在前排的人,

  • As a result, they were referred to as komoidoumenoi:

    而大家都可以看到前排人的反應。

  • "those made fun of in comedy."

    因此,這些人被稱為 「komoidoumenoi」:

  • Aristophanes' vicious and often obscene mockery

    「在喜劇中被玩弄的人」。

  • held these leaders to account, testing their commitment to the city.

    阿里斯多芬尼斯的嘲弄 很惡毒,常常也很猥褻,

  • One issue, in particular, inspired much of Aristophanes' work:

    他就是要這些領導者負責, 考驗他們對城市的投入。

  • the Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta.

    有一個議題,特別是 阿里斯多芬尼斯創作的靈感來源:

  • In Peace, written in 421 BC,

    雅典和斯巴達之間的 伯羅奔尼撒戰爭。

  • a middle-aged Athenian frees the embodiment of peace from a cave,

    在西元前 421 年所寫的 《和平》一作當中,

  • where she'd been exiled by profiteering politicians.

    一位中年雅典人把具像化成為人的 「和平」從一個洞穴中解放出來,

  • Then, in the aftermath of a crushing naval defeat for Athens in 411 BC,

    而她是被牟取暴利的政客 給放逐到那裡去的。

  • Aristophanes wrote "Lysistrata."

    接著,在西元前 411 年, 在雅典海軍慘敗之後的時期,

  • In this play, the women of Athens grow sick of war

    阿里斯多芬尼斯寫了 《利西翠妲》。

  • and go on a sex strike until their husbands make peace.

    在這部劇本中, 雅典女性厭倦了戰爭,

  • Other plays use similarly fantastic scenarios to skewer topical situations,

    決定進行性罷工, 直到她們的丈夫談和為止。

  • such as in "Clouds,"

    其他的劇作也用類似的奇幻情境 來串起很有話題性的情境,

  • where Aristophanes mocked fashionable philosophical thinking.

    比如在《雲》中,

  • The hero Strepsiades enrolls in Socrates's new philosophical school,

    阿里斯多芬尼斯嘲弄了 流行的哲學思想。

  • where he learns how to prove that wrong is right

    主角史粹普西底斯進入 蘇格拉底的新哲學學校就讀,

  • and that a debt is not a debt.

    在那裡,他學到 如何證明錯的是對的,

  • No matter how outlandish these plays get, the heroes always prevail in the end.

    證明債不是債。

  • Aristophanes also became the master of the parabasis,

    不論這些劇作有多麼古怪, 到最後,主角總是會獲勝。

  • a comic technique where actors address the audience directly,

    阿里斯多芬尼斯也成為 合唱隊主唱段的大師,

  • often praising the playwright or making topical comments and jokes.

    合唱隊主唱段是一種技巧, 演員直接對觀眾演說,

  • For example, in "Birds,"

    通常是讚美劇作家或是做 主題性的評論及說笑話。

  • the Chorus takes the role of different birds

    比如,在《鳥》中,

  • and threatens the Athenian judges that if their play doesn't win first prize,

    合唱團扮演不同的鳥的角色,

  • they'll defecate on them as they walk around the city.

    並威脅雅典裁判,如果 他們的劇作沒得到第一名,

  • Perhaps the judges didn't appreciate the joke,

    就會在他們在城市中行走時, 將鳥糞拉在他們身上。

  • as the play came in second.

    也許裁判不欣賞這個玩笑,

  • By exploring new ideas

    這部劇作得到第二名。

  • and encouraging self-criticism in Athenian society,

    透過開發新點子

  • Aristophanes not only mocked his fellow citizens,

    以及在雅典社會中鼓勵自我批判,

  • but he shaped the nature of comedy itself.

    阿里斯多芬尼斯不僅僅 嘲笑他的市民同伴們,

  • Hailed by some scholars as the father of comedy,

    他也形塑出了喜劇的本質。

  • his fingerprints are visible upon comic techniques everywhere,

    有些學者稱他為喜劇之父,

  • from slapstick

    在各處的喜劇技巧中 都看得見他的影子,

  • to double acts

    從低俗鬧劇喜劇,

  • to impersonations

    到雙人搭擋演出,到模仿,

  • to political satire.

    到政治諷刺劇。

  • Through the praise of free speech and the celebration of ordinary heroes,

    透過讚美自由言論 及讚頌平凡英雄,

  • his plays made his audience think while they laughed.

    他的劇作讓觀眾在歡笑的同時 也能有所思考。

  • And his retort to Kleon in 425 BC still resonates today:

    而他在西元前 425 年對克萊昂的 反擊,至今仍然在迴響著:

  • “I'm a comedian, so I'll speak about justice,

    「我是位喜劇演員, 所以我會訴說正義,

  • no matter how hard it sounds to your ears.”

    不論你聽起來覺得多麼不順耳。」

At the annual Athenian drama festival in 426 BC,

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 阿里斯多芬尼斯 喜劇 雅典 劇作 克萊昂

為什麼阿里斯托芬被稱為 "喜劇之父"?- 馬克-羅賓遜 (Why is Aristophanes called "The Father of Comedy"? - Mark Robinson)

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    林宜悉   發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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