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  • How do we explain the unexplainable?

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

  • This question has inspired numerous myths,

    我們要如何解釋無法解釋的事物?

  • religious practices,

    這個問題是許多神話、

  • and scientific inquiries.

    宗教活動,

  • But Zen Buddhists practicing throughout China from the 9th to 13th century

    及科學調查的靈感來源。

  • asked a different question

    但從第九世紀到第十三世紀 在中國各地的禪學者

  • why do we need an explanation?

    卻問了不同的問題:

  • For these monks, blindly seeking answers was a vice to overcome,

    為什麼我們需要解釋?

  • and learning to accept the mysteries of existence

    對這些僧人來說,盲目地尋求答案 是一種需要克服的不當行為,

  • was the true path to enlightenment.

    而學習去接受存在的謎

  • But fighting the urge to explain the unexplainable can be difficult.

    才是通往頓悟的真實道路。

  • So to help practice living with these mysteries,

    但我們都會想要解釋無法解釋的 事物,很難對抗這衝動。

  • the meditating monks used a collection of roughly 1,700 bewildering

    所以,為了練習與這些謎共存,

  • and ambiguous philosophical thought experiments calledans.

    禪定的僧侶會使用一系列 大約一千七百則公案,

  • The name, originally gong-an in Chinese, translates topublic record or case."

    公案是些讓人困惑 且模糊的哲學思想實驗。

  • But unlike real-world court cases, kōans were intentionally incomprehensible.

    在中文,公案這個詞意思

  • They were surprising, surreal, and frequently contradicted themselves.

    是「公共的紀錄或案件」。

  • On the surface, they contained a proverb about the Zen Buddhist monastic code -

    但不像真實世界中的法庭案件, 公案是刻意要讓人無法理解的。

  • such as living without physical or mental attachments,

    它們很讓人驚訝、超現實, 且常常本身就是矛盾的。

  • avoiding binary thinking,

    表面上公案包含 和禪苑清規有關的禪語,

  • and realizing one's trueBuddha-nature."

    比如破我執、

  • But by framing those lessons as illogical anecdotes,

    不二,

  • they became tests to help practicing monks learn to live with ambiguity and paradox.

    以及了解自己的真實「佛性」。

  • By puzzling through these confusingcases,"

    但,把那些教訓塑造成 沒有邏輯的軼事,

  • meditating monks could both internalize and practice Buddhist teachings.

    它們就成了測試,協助修行的僧人

  • Hopefully, they would let go of the search for one true answer

    學習如何與模糊和自相矛盾共存。

  • and trigger a spiritual breakthrough.

    在這些讓人困惑的 「案件」中冥思苦想,

  • Since these are intentionally unexplainable,

    禪定的僧侶能內化並實踐佛的教導,

  • it would be misguided to try and decipher these stories ourselves.

    希望能夠放下對於 單一真實答案的追尋,

  • But like the monks before us,

    獲得開悟。

  • we can puzzle over them together,

    因為公案的原本目的 就是要無法解釋,

  • and investigate just how resistant they are to simple explanations.

    如果我們試圖自己解讀 這些故事,就被誤導了。

  • Consider thisan illustrating the practice of no-attachment.

    但就像之前的僧人,

  • Two monks, Tanzan and Ekido, are traveling together down a muddy road.

    我們可以一起冥思苦想,

  • Ahead they see an attractive traveler, unable to cross the muddy path.

    研究看看它們對於 簡單解釋的抵抗力有多強。

  • Tanzan politely offers his help,

    來看看這個描述「破我執」的公案。

  • carrying the traveler on his back across the street,

    坦山和尚與一道友 兩人一同走在泥濘路上。

  • and placing her down without a word.

    前方有名漂亮的旅人 無法越過泥濘路。

  • Ekido was shocked.

    坦山和尚很有禮貌地表示願意協助,

  • According to monastic law, monks were not supposed to go near women,

    背著旅人過街,

  • let alone touch a beautiful stranger.

    再將她放下來,什麼也沒說。

  • After miles of walking, Ekido could no longer restrain himself.

    道友很吃驚。

  • How could you carry that woman?”

    根據僧侶的法則, 僧侶不應該靠近女人,

  • Tanzan smiled, “I left the traveler there. Are you still carrying her?”

    更不能去觸碰漂亮的陌生人。

  • Like allans, this story has numerous interpretations.

    走了幾哩路之後,道友無法再忍了。

  • But one popular reading suggests

    「你怎麼能去背那名女子?」

  • that despite never having physically carried the traveler,

    坦山和尚微笑:「我早已放下 那旅人了。你還背著她嗎?」

  • Ekido broke monastic law by mentally "clinging to" the woman.

    和所有的公案一樣, 這個故事有多種詮釋。

  • This type of conflict

    但一種普遍的解讀是

  • examining the grey area between the letter of the law and the spirit of the law

    雖然道友沒實際背負旅人,

  • was common inans.

    但他已打破戒律, 因為他心理上還「依戀」著她。

  • In addition to exploring ambiguity,

    這種矛盾探究

  • ans often ridiculed characters

    戒律的字面和真意之間的灰色地帶,

  • claiming total understanding of the world around them.

    在公案裡很常見。

  • One such example finds three monks

    除了探索不明確的模稜兩可,

  • debating a temple flag rippling in the wind.

    公案也常會揶揄

  • The first monk refers to the flag as a moving banner,

    宣稱完全了解周遭世界的角色。

  • while the second monk insists that they are not seeing the flag move,

    舉《風動幡動公案》為例,

  • but rather the wind blowing.

    三個僧人針對寺廟的幡 被風吹動的辯論。

  • They argue back and forth, until finally, a third monk intervenes,

    第一個僧人說是幡動,

  • It is not the flag moving, nor the wind blowing,

    第二個僧人堅稱不是幡動

  • but rather the movement of your minds!”

    而是風動。

  • One interpretation of thisan plays on the supposed wisdom of the arguing monks

    他們來來回回地爭辯,直到最後,

  • the first asserting the importance of the observable world,

    第三個僧人(六祖惠能大師)介入,

  • the second favoring deeper knowledge we can infer from that world.

    說:「不是風動,不是幡動,

  • But each monk's commitment to his ownanswer

    仁者心動!」

  • blinds him to the other's insight, and in doing so,

    有個公案的詮釋點出 爭辯的二僧看似很有智慧——

  • defies an essential Buddhist ideal: abolishing binary thinking.

    甲僧主張世間的重要性,

  • The third monk identifies their conflict as a perceptual one

    乙僧偏好深探世間的智慧。

  • both arguing monks fail to see the larger picture.

    二位僧人堅信自己的「答案」,

  • Of course, all these interpretations only hint at how to wrestle with theseans.

    讓他們盲目,看不到另一人的洞見,

  • Neither the wisdom from practicing monks before us,

    因而違反了佛教的根本理念:不二。

  • nor the supposedly wise characters in these stories

    丙僧指出兩僧感受外境而起爭端,

  • can resolve them for you.

    爭論的雙方都沒看到全貌。

  • That's because the purpose of theseans isn't reaching a simple solution.

    當然,這些詮釋全只暗示 要如何看待這些公案。

  • It's the very act of struggling with these paradoxical puzzles

    之前修行僧人的智慧,

  • which challenge our desire for resolution,

    或這些故事中的得道高僧,

  • and our understanding of understanding itself.

    都無法為你解答。

How do we explain the unexplainable?

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Helen Chang

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 僧侶 旅人 解釋 和尚 詮釋

禪觀:為打破你的大腦而設計的無解之謎--李普群。 (Zen kōans: unsolvable enigmas designed to break your brain - Puqun Li)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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