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  • Hi, this is Julián from MinuteEarth.

    哈囉!我是 MinuteEarth 的 Julián。

  • In 2009, a disease swept across the globe and infected millions, and before it was officially named 2009 H1N1 Flu, it was popularly dubbed "swine flu."

    2009 年,有一疾病席捲全球並導致數百萬人染病。它在正式命名為 2009 年 H1N1 流感前,大眾俗稱其成「豬流感」。

  • Panicking countries banned sales of pigs and pig products, turning the pork industry on its snout and Egypt even went so far as to slaughter all 300,000 of the country's pigs to stop the virus in its tracks.

    一些不安的國家禁止國內販售豬隻和豬肉產品,導致養豬產業陷入癱瘓,埃及甚至屠宰國內 30 萬頭豬隻以防病毒散播。

  • The problem?

    有什麼問題?

  • While the virus likely evolved from one that did infect pigs, the 2009 version was almost exclusively transmitted person-to-person rather than porcine to person.

    儘管這種病毒應該是從能感染豬隻的病毒演變而成,不過 2009 年的這款病毒幾乎僅限於人傳人,而不要豬隻傳人。

  • Regardless, the name alone triggered a pig-induced pandemonium.

    不管怎麼樣,這個名字誘發起一場由豬隻引起的混亂。

  • But pigs aren't in any way the only victims of a poorly-named diseasehistorically, we've also named viruses after groups of people or places where people live, which can direct all that disease-associated fear and stigma onto people.

    不過,豬並不是唯一一個被污名化的受害者。過去我們曾經以一群人或是他們的居住地命名,這會直接把對疾病的恐慌和污名與人連結。

  • And not only is that incredibly dangerous for those people, but prejudice doesn't actually prevent the spread of disease.

    對他們來說不僅是危險,這種偏見也不見得有助於阻止病毒散播。

  • To help protect people, places, and... well, pigs from such stigma, in 2015 the World Health Organization penned guidelines for naming new infectious diseases soon after they're discovered.

    為了保護當地人民、地方,甚至乎豬隻以防被冠以惡名,WHO 於 2015 年撰寫有關發現新傳染病後為其命名的指引。

  • No people, places, animals, foods, or occupations.

    不能以人、地方、動物、食品或職業命名。

  • And avoid fearmongering with terms like "unknown" or "fatal."

    亦要避免使用「未知」或「致命」等會造成大眾恐慌的字眼。

  • Instead, use descriptive qualities of the disease itself, like its symptoms, severity or seasonality, and, if known, the actual bug behind the disease, oh, and definitely keep the name easily pronounceable.

    相反地,應該要以疾病的特徵作描述,如症狀、嚴重性或季節性,倘若知道實際引起疾病的病毒,也可以以此命名,而且名稱要是容易發音的。

  • Which is how our latest pandemic was named Coronavirus Disease 2019, abbreviated COVID-19, for the crown-shaped coronavirus that causes the disease that emerged in 2019.

    而這也就是最新的全球大流行疾病如何被名為 2019 冠狀病毒 (Coronavirus Disease 2019),簡稱 COVID-19,因為這個皇冠形的冠狀病毒於 2019 年引發這場疫症。

  • Of course, some people will still be racist or misinformed and turn their fear on the nearest scapegoat, but at least we're trying to head off the spread of stigma by providing standardized names before the harmful ones can go viral.

    當然,有些人仍然會帶有種族歧視或是被誤導,並把他們的恐懼轉移至身旁的代罪羔羊。但是至少我們曾嘗試於污名被廣泛傳播前透過標準的命名方式阻止。

  • These days, the world needs all the generosity it can get, and one really easy and free way to donate to a worthy cause is Tab for a Cause, which donates money to a charity each time you open a new browser tab.

    近日,全世界的人都需要大家的慷慨解囊,而一個簡單且免費的捐款方式就是 Tab for a Cause。你只要每打開一個新的分頁就會捐款至慈善團體。

  • I've been using Tab for a Cause for at least six years and, according to my Tab for a Cause stats page, I've opened over... holy tab-moly, 37,000 tabs in that time, which I've turned into real donations to my favorite charities, including their current COVID-19 response fund.

    我已經使用了六年,而根據我的使用數據… 天啊!已經打開過 37,000 個分頁,並已轉為實際捐款至我喜歡的慈善團體,包括 COVID-19 應急基金。

  • If you, like me, open up way too many tabs, you can feel good about it by going to tabforacause.org/MinuteEarth2 and downloading the extension now.

    如果你們像我一樣常常打開很多分頁的話,可以到 tabforcause.org/MinuteEarth2 下載擴充程式,包準你們感到滿意。

  • That's tabforacause.org/MinuteEarth2.

    這是 tabforcause.org/MinuteEarth2。

  • And there's one more way you can help the world from the comfort of your couch: stay there, at least for now.

    還有一個讓你舒服地躺在沙發上就可以幫助全世界:就目前情況,請待在那。

  • We're putting this video out in the midst of a pandemic and, according the World Health Organization, the best way to make sure you don't become a carrier of the virus or infect vulnerable people like, say, your grandparents, is to stay home or, if you absolutely have to go out, stay far away from other people.

    我們會在這場流行病肆虐期間上傳這部影片。根據 WHO,要確保你們不會成為帶菌者或是傳染給抵抗力較低的人,像是祖父母的話,就好好待在家裡。如果非得要出門的話,請與人保持距離。

  • Let's help each other out in the comments by suggesting some awesome things to do while you're houseboundother than watching MinuteEarth, of course.

    歡迎大家在下面留言討論因不能出門只能在家裡進行的活動,當然是除了看 MinuteEarth 的影片以外的活動。

  • And for a much-needed moment of distraction, here's our latest caption contest winner. [The world is getting... hot.]

    在這段非常需要分散注意力的期間,這是最新一期播圖說明的得獎者。[世界變得越來越...熱]

  • The next image is ready for awesome caption suggestions from all levels of patrons at patreon.com/MinuteEarth.

    而下一張圖片已準備好給大家配上文字說明,歡迎各級別的資助者到 patreon.com/MinuteEarth。

Hi, this is Julián from MinuteEarth.

哈囉!我是 MinuteEarth 的 Julián。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 豬隻 病毒 covid 散播 冠狀 團體

【新冠肺炎】COVID-19 為什麼叫 COVID-19?疾病是如何命名的?(How To Name A Disease Like COVID-19)

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    Fibby 發佈於 2020 年 05 月 01 日
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