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  • There's a lot of misinformation out there about what it means to be transgender.

    社會上有很多關於跨性別者的錯誤訊息。

  • But recently scientists have begun to look more closely into the neurology, physiology, and psychology behind it.

    但最近科學家們已經開始更深入地研究其背後的神經、生理和心理原理。

  • So today, we're gonna break down what science does know in a respectful and educational way.

    所以我們今天要秉持尊敬和學習的心態解析科學已知結果。

  • Hey guys! I'm Gigi Gorgeous.

    大家好!我是 Gigi Gorgeous。

  • And today, I'm here with ASAPScience to break down 'The Science of Being Transgender'..

    今天我將和 ASAPScience 一起解說「跨性別者的科學原理」。

  • Before we get too deep into it, we have to look at your genetic sex, or the chromosomes you have.

    在深入探討之前,我們必須先看你的基因性別,也就是你的染色體。

  • These were determined right at fertilization, when the sperm cell from your father, which carries an X or a Y chromosome fused with the egg from your mother, which carries an X chromosome.

    這些在受精那一刻就已經決定,也就是你父親攜帶 X 或 Y 染色體的精子細胞和你母親攜帶 X 染色體的卵子結合時。

  • But until 6 or 7 weeks after fertilization, both XY and XX embryos have identical gonads.

    不過到受精 6 到 7 週後,XY 和 XX 胚胎仍擁有一模一樣的性腺。

  • Around 7 weeks, the male sex organs start to develop because of a gene on the Y chromosome called SRY.

    大約 7 週時,男性生殖器官開始發育,歸因於 Y 染色體上名為 Y 染色體性別決定區(SRY)的基因。

  • It causes cells to become more specialized.

    它使細胞發育差異化。

  • And these cells create testosterone, which, in turn, triggers the development of structures like the penis and scrotum, while other cells block female development by degenerating the female ducts.

    這些細胞產生睪丸素,進而啟動陰莖和陰囊等結構的發育,而其他細胞會弱化雌性導管阻礙雌性發育。

  • However, in female development, because there is no Y chromosome with the SRY gene, these ducts stay intact and become the uterus, cervix, upper vagina, and the oviduct, with the help of estrogen, and chemicals secreted by the early kidney.

    然而在女性發育的過程中,由於缺乏 Y 染色體性別決定區(SRY),這些導管完好無損,變成了子宮、子宮頸、陰道上端和輸卵管,歸因於雌激素和早期腎臟分泌的化學物質。

  • But it's not always that simple.

    但事情並非總是如此簡單。

  • There are sometimes even rare combinations, like XXY, XXX, XXYY, etc.

    有時候甚至會出現罕見的組合,如 XXY、XXX、XXYY 等。

  • And even people with XX chromosomes that develop male genitals and characteristics, due to a piece of the Y chromosome breaking off and switching places to an X chromosome.

    即使是擁有 XX 染色體的人,也會發育出男性生殖器和特徵,這是因為 Y 染色體斷裂毀損並轉移到 X 染色體上。

  • But sexual differentiation in the brain actually happens much later than gonadal differentiation.

    但是腦中的性區別其實比性腺區別發生得更晚。

  • And yes, although controversial, male and female brains have structural and functional differences between each other.

    沒錯,儘管有爭議,男性和女性大腦之間擁有結構和功能上的差異。

  • Studies have found that males generally have a larger cerebrum, cerebellum, and hippocampus.

    研究顯示,男性通常有較大的大、小腦以及海馬迴。

  • While females have higher-density left frontal lobes and larger volumes in the right frontal lobes.

    而女性擁有密度較高的左額葉,而右額葉的容量也較大。

  • So what exactly do we see when we look at the brain of a transgender person?

    所以當我們觀察跨性別者的大腦時,我們究竟看到了什麼?

  • Several studies have shown that transgender brains are both structurally and functionally more similar to their experienced gender identity than their biological sex.

    研究發現跨性別者的大腦結構和功能上,都比較接近他們認同的性別而不是生理性別。

  • One study found that transwomen, who, despite being assigned male at birth, had a smaller female-sized structure in the hypothalamus.

    一項研究發現,跨性別女性儘管出生時被認定為男性,她們的下丘腦中的結構較小,接近女性尺寸。

  • MRI scans also show the brain structures of transpeople to be more similar in thickness to their experienced gender and not their sex.

    核磁共振影像也顯示,跨性別者的腦部結構厚度也比較接近他們的認同性別,而不是生理性別。

  • Finally, the pheromone androstadienone causes different hypothalamic responses in male and female brains.

    最後,費洛蒙雄二烯酮在男性和女性的大腦中引起不同的下丘腦反應。

  • And when individuals with Gender Dysphoria were exposed to it, the hypothalamic response match their perceived gender rather than their sex.

    患有性別焦慮症的人接觸到它時,下丘腦反應符合他們的感知性別而非生理性別。

  • These studies help to highlight how masculinization or feminization of the gonads is not always the same as the brain.

    這些研究有助於強調,性腺的雄性化或雌性化結果並不總與大腦相同。

  • And that there's a difference between your sex, or your anatomy and your gender, or how we perceive our own bodies.

    而差異性存在於你的生理性別、人體解剖結構你的性別,或我們如何看待自己的身體。

  • There also seems to be a genetic component to transgender identity.

    變性人的身份似乎也和遺傳因素有關。

  • Looking at family histories, gender identity in congruence seems to run in the family.

    回顧家族史,性別認同似乎是世代相傳的。

  • Meaning they may be inherited.

    意味著那可能是家族遺傳。

  • The CYP17 gene, which controls the body's level of sex hormones, has a changed allele that is expressed frequently in transmen.

    CYP17 基因掌管身體的性激素分泌,其等位基因發生改變,在跨性別男性身上很常見。

  • Although more research could be done, scientists are currently looking at over 3 million DNA markers for transgender identity to investigate any genetic link for being trans.

    雖然可以進行更多研究,科學家目前正在研究超過三百萬個跨性別認同的 DNA 標記,研究基因與跨性別者的關係。

  • Even though scientific studies validate the experience of transgender people, they're still suffering from more depression and anxiety than the general public.

    即使科學研究驗證了跨性別者的經歷,他們仍然遭受超過一般人的抑鬱和焦慮。

  • The risk of suicide is more prominent in transgender people who have been rejected by their family, discriminated in the workplace, or in healthcare.

    被家人排斥、在工作場所受到歧視,或在醫療上受到歧視的跨性別者,其自殺風險更為顯著。

  • Suicide risks seem to decrease after gender transitioning, suggesting that Gender Dysphoria can cause an extreme amount of emotional pain, even to the point of suicide.

    自殺風險似乎在性別轉換後降低了,這顯示性別焦慮症可能引起情緒上的極大痛苦,足以令人尋死。

  • If you, a family member, or a friend is suffering from Gender Dysphoria, there are a few links in the description for more information.

    如果你、你的家人或朋友患有性別焦慮症,資訊欄中有一些提供更多相關資訊的連結。

  • Thank you so much Gigi for being part of this video.

    Gigi,非常感謝你參與影片的製作。

  • It means so much and we're happy that you are here to do this with us.

    這對我們而言意義重大,我們很高興有你的參與。

  • Ah, well, thank you guys for using your channel, your platform, validating transgender experiences with science, which just brings us closer to equality.

    感謝兩位透過你們的頻道、你們的平台用科學驗證了跨性別的經歷,讓我們又往平等邁進了一步。

  • Absolutely!

    沒錯!

  • If you guys wanna check out Gigi's channel, we'll put links in the description or on the screen somewhere.

    如果你們對 Gigi 的頻道感興趣,我們會把連結放在資訊欄或螢幕上某個地方。

  • Otherwise, you can subscribe for more science here, every week, and we'll see you next time.

    另外,你們可以訂閱我們的頻道以每週獲取更多科學資訊。我們下次見!

  • Peace!

    再見!

There's a lot of misinformation out there about what it means to be transgender.

社會上有很多關於跨性別者的錯誤訊息。

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B2 中高級 中文 美國腔 性別 染色體 男性 發育 生理 研究

科學的變性人英尺。Gigi Gorgeous (The Science of Being Transgender ft. Gigi Gorgeous)

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    jeremy.wang 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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