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  • We already know that the world is made of things,

    我們已經知道這世界由物品組成

  • things like cats

    物品如貓

  • and macaroni salad,

    及通心粉沙拉

  • and macaroni salad is made of things

    而通心粉沙拉也是由物品組成

  • like mayo

    如美乃滋

  • and mustard

    芥末醬

  • and celery,

    及西洋芹等

  • which are all made of molecules.

    這些都是由分子組成

  • As we'll see, these molecules

    正如我們所見,這些分子

  • are made of the same stuff,

    是由相同的東西組成

  • just mixed together in different ways.

    只是以不同的方法混在一起

  • Let's go back to our macaroni salad.

    讓我們回到我們的通心粉沙拉

  • We've already unmixed things physically

    我們已經物理性還原各種物品

  • as much as we can.

    盡了我們最大的力

  • Now, we'll go further and unmix things chemically

    現在,我們要進一步化學性還原物品

  • by breaking some bonds.

    要用打斷鍵結的方法

  • Many larger, complex molecules

    許多更大、複雜的分子

  • are just a bunch of smaller molecules bonded together

    只是由一堆小一點的分子鍵結在一起

  • like building blocks.

    就像積木

  • Here, again, macaroni salad provides a nice example.

    這裡,通心粉沙拉再次提供很好的例子

  • If you look at the pasta,

    如果你看通心粉

  • you'll notice it's made of a lot of this stuff,

    你會注意到這是由很多「東西」組成

  • starch,

    澱粉

  • which is this molecule,

    就是這個分子

  • otherwise known as amylose.

    通常被稱為直鏈澱粉

  • Turns out, if you break some bonds,

    結果是如果你打斷一些鍵結

  • amylose is made up of smaller molecules

    直鏈澱粉是由更小的分子

  • of glucose, a simple sugar.

    葡萄糖分子組成,這是一種單醣

  • If you take a bunch of these same glucose molecules

    如果你拿一堆一樣的葡萄醣分子

  • and rearrange them in a different way,

    以不同方法重新排列

  • you get cellulose,

    你就會得到纖維素

  • which is what plants are made of.

    這就是植物的組成物

  • So, while this piece of pasta made of amylose

    所以,雖然這個由直鏈澱粉 所組成的通心粉

  • and this wooden spoon made of cellulose

    與這根由纖維素組成的木製湯匙

  • look vastly different,

    看起來大不同

  • they're both essentially made of the same molecules,

    它們兩者基本上都由相同的分子所組成

  • just stuck together differently.

    只是用不同的方式黏在一起

  • This type of breaking apart and recombining

    這種形態的破壞及重組

  • is what goes on when you digest food.

    是你在消化食物的時候發生的事

  • The complex proteins found in the foods we eat,

    複雜的蛋白質,存在於我們所吃的食物

  • like carrots and eggs,

    如胡蘿蔔及雞蛋中

  • can't be used by our bodies

    不能被我們的身體利用

  • because we are not carrots or chickens.

    因為我們不是胡蘿蔔或雞

  • What we can use are the smaller molecules

    我們可以用的,是更小的分子

  • that make up these proteins,

    是組成這些蛋白質的成分

  • the amino acids.

    胺基酸

  • During digestion, our bodies break these proteins up

    在消化過程中 我們的身體分解這些蛋白質

  • into their amino acids

    成胺基酸

  • so they can be rearranged and put back together

    所以它們可以被重新排列及組合

  • to make human proteins.

    以製造人類的蛋白質

  • But let's keep breaking bonds.

    但讓我們繼續打斷鍵結

  • All molecules are made up of atoms bonded together.

    所有的分子都由原子鍵結在一起

  • If some molecules are building blocks,

    如果把一些分子當做積木

  • atoms are the building blocks

    原子就是積木中的

  • of the building blocks.

    積木

  • And you'll notice that with the molecules

    你會注意到在

  • from macaroni salad,

    通心粉沙拉裡的分子裡

  • the same six types of atoms keep showing up:

    有六種相同的原子不斷出現

  • carbon,

  • hydrogen,

  • oxygen,

  • nitrogen,

  • phosphorus,

  • and sulfur,

    及硫

  • or CHONPS.

    或元素符號 CHONPS

  • There's a few others,

    還有一些其他的元素

  • but the big six is what macaroni salad is made of.

    但這六大是通心粉沙拉的組成

  • If we went a step further,

    假如我們再向前進一步

  • we could use these same atoms,

    我們還可以拿這些相同的原子

  • recombine them,

    重組

  • and make other stuff

    變成其他的東西

  • like gasoline

    如汽油

  • or sulfuric acid,

    硫酸

  • methane,

    甲烷

  • and nylon.

    及尼龍

  • It's all made from the same elements

    這些都是由通心粉沙拉的

  • that make up macaroni salad.

    相同組成元素所組成

  • So, to recap,

    所以總括來說

  • everything is made of atoms.

    每樣物品都是從原子組成

  • They are the stuff that things are made of.

    原子是組成物品的「東西」

  • Atoms are grouped together in different ways

    原子以不同的方式組合

  • to form molecules.

    以形成分子

  • These molecules are constantly being combined,

    這些分子不斷地結合

  • broken apart,

    分裂

  • and recombined.

    及重組

  • They get thrown into mixtures,

    它們被丟進混合物裡

  • separated,

    分離

  • remixed

    重混

  • over and over and over again.

    一次又一次的重複

  • The stuff that things are made of

    這些組合成物品的「東西」

  • is always in flux;

    總是變來變去

  • it's always changing.

    總是在變化

  • Macaroni salad is only macaroni salad for a short time.

    通心粉沙拉只能維持 通心粉沙拉很短的時間

  • You eat it,

    你吃下它

  • some of it becomes part of you,

    其中的某些部分就變成你的一部分

  • the rest eventually goes into the ocean

    其餘的終究要流入海洋

  • and gets eaten by other animals that die,

    被其他會死亡的動物吃掉

  • and after millions of years, they turn into oil,

    然後在幾百萬年後變成石油

  • which is where gasoline comes from.

    這即為汽油的來源

  • And that's why gasoline and macaroni salad

    這就是為什麼汽油和通心粉沙拉

  • are not that different -

    並沒有那麼不同

  • they're both made of the same stuff,

    它們兩者都是由相同的「東西」組成

  • just one tastes better.

    只是一種味道更好

We already know that the world is made of things,

我們已經知道這世界由物品組成

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 分子 原子 積木 鍵結 蛋白質

【TED-Ed】通心粉沙拉的科學原理。分子裡有什麼?- Josh Kurz (【TED-Ed】The science of macaroni salad: What's in a molecule? - Josh Kurz)

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