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  • For us, life unfolds on human scales.

    對於我們來說,生活是以人的尺度展開的。

  • Miles...feet...inches.

    英里...英尺...英寸。

  • But beneath the surface of things is another

    但是,在事情的表面之下,是另一回事

  • realm a billion times smaller than we are. A dimension that holds the secrets to understanding our world.

    一個比我們小十億倍的世界 realm a billion times smaller than we are.一個擁有了解我們世界的祕密的維度 A dimension that holds the secrets to understand our world.

  • What makes steel strong...

    是什麼讓鋼的強度...

  • ...why ice cream is delicious...

    ...為什麼冰激凌好吃....

  • ...what makes life possible.

    ...是什麼讓生命成為可能。

  • Secrets that help us create what we imagine.

    幫助我們創造想象的祕密。

  • "The human creativity of chemistry. There's just nothing more beautiful than them."

    "人類對化學的創造力。有'的只是沒有什麼比他們更美麗.&quot。

  • This is the realm of chemistry and these are it's greatest discoveries.

    這是化學的領域,這些都是它最偉大的發現'。

  • Ancient Greek philosophers believed there were just four elements; earth, air, fire and water.

    古希臘哲學家認為只有四種元素:地、氣、火、水。

  • And that air was the underlying element.

    而這種空氣是底層元素。

  • A single substance responsible for the make up of everything in the world.

    構成世界萬物的單一物質。

  • Centuries later Leonardo Da Vinci was among the first to suggest that instead of being

    幾個世紀後,達文西是最早提出與其被人稱為 "小人物",不如被人稱為 "大人物 "的人。

  • an element, air might consist of two different gases. It remained a mystery until our first great discovery.

    空氣可能由兩種不同的氣體組成。直到我們的第一個偉大發現,它仍然是一個謎。

  • England, the latter part of the eighteenth century, clergymen and sometimes

    英國,十八世紀後半期,神職人員和有時

  • scientist Joseph Priestley conducted a series of experiments searching for new 'airs' what today we call gases.

    科學家約瑟夫-普里斯特利進行了一系列的實驗,尋找新的'空氣'也就是今天我們所說的氣體。

  • To find out more about what Priestley was up to, I paid a visit to

    為了瞭解更多關於Priestley的情況,我去了一趟。

  • Arnold Thackray. President and historian at the Chemical Heritage Foundation in Philladelphia Pennsylvania.

    阿諾德-薩克雷,賓夕法尼亞州費城化學遺產基金會主席兼歷史學家。賓夕法尼亞州菲拉德爾菲亞化學遺產基金會的主席和歷史學家。

  • "Priestley wrote and wrote and wrote on every subject that you've ever thought of.

    "普里斯特利寫了又寫,寫了又寫,寫了你所想到的每一個主題。

  • He wrote about history, he wrote about religion, he wrote about politics, he wrote..

    他寫歷史,他寫宗教,他寫政治,他寫... ...

  • "Science?" He wrote about science endlessly and Priestley was the man who knew everything.

    "科學?"他無休止地寫著關於科學的文章,普里斯特利是一個什麼都知道的人。

  • He would tell you the practice of it, the history of it, the theory of it and he was quite literally

    他會告訴你它的實踐,它的歷史,它的理論,他是相當字面上的。

  • the man who knew everything."

    那個什麼都知道的人&quot。

  • But along with everything else Priestley did this famous experiment right?

    但與此同時,普里斯特利還做了這個著名的實驗吧?

  • "That's exactly correct, and there are two things that go into that experiment.

    "那'是完全正確的,那個實驗有兩件事。

  • The one is Mercury. This strange substance that's simultaneously a liquid and metal.

    一個是水銀。這種奇怪的物質,同時是液體和金屬。

  • And that's just crazy. Who ever heard of a liquid metal and so it was really puzzling.

    而這'簡直是瘋了。誰聽說過液態金屬,所以真的是讓人摸不著頭腦。

  • What is this thing? People were fascinated by it and so they wanted to explore it. Of

    這是什麼東西?人們被它迷住了,所以想去探索它。的

  • course the other thing that went into it was the technology to deal with gases and here

    當然,另一件事是處理氣體的技術,在這裡。

  • in Priestley's experiments and observations on different kinds of air we have the technology

    在普里斯特利'的實驗和觀察不同種類的空氣,我們有技術

  • of collecting gases over liquids. "In tubes that you can see through." Exactly, so you

    在管子裡,你可以看到通過。 沒錯,所以你可以在這裡。

  • can see the gas, you can see what's happening to the gas and now you really are in business.

    可以看到氣體,你可以看到氣體發生了什麼',現在你真的是在業務。

  • What Priestley does is he takes a burning glass to give it heat, a lens. He focuses it on

    普利斯特利的做法是,他把燃燒的玻璃給它加熱,給它一個鏡頭。他把它聚焦在

  • this orange powder, the mercuric calx, he heats it, it changes into this metal mercury

    這種橙色的粉末,汞鈣,加熱它,它就變成了這種金屬汞。

  • and a gas comes off. But Priestley doesn't really realize what it is that he's found."

    和一個氣體脫落。但普里斯特利並沒有真正意識到他發現的是什麼.&quot。

  • The answer would emerge in 1774 after Priestley paid a visit to Paris and shared

    答案將在1774年普里斯特利訪問巴黎並分享後出現。

  • the story of his discovery with another scientist... Antoine Lavoisier. "Paris is a marvelous place

    他與另一位科學家的發現故事... ...安託萬-拉瓦錫 巴黎是個奇妙的地方。

  • for Priestley to visit because Antoine Lavoisier is in Paris, talk of the town, doing the work

    因為安託萬-拉瓦錫在巴黎,所以普里斯特利才會去拜訪他,他在巴黎談天說地,做工作。

  • that will end up as his elementary text on chemistry. And Lavoisier who is also mucking

    最終會成為他的化學基礎課本。還有拉瓦錫,他也在瞎搞

  • about with gases, hears what Priestley has done, is fascinated by the report of this

    聽到了普里斯特利的工作,被這個報告吸引住了

  • new air, decides he'll repeat the experiment. He has lots of apparatus, better apparatus.

    新的空氣,決定他'將重複實驗。他有很多儀器,更好的儀器。

  • He's a meticulous experimenter. And among other things he weighs things. Lavoisier, by

    他是一個細緻的實驗者。在其他事情中,他還會稱量東西。拉瓦錫,由

  • weighing says something is being emitted. He calls the thing emitted oxygen. He rewrites

    稱說有東西在散發。他把發出的東西叫做氧氣。他改寫了

  • a whole script of chemistry and he creates a list of elements that we still use today;

    一整套的化學腳本,他創造了一個我們今天仍在使用的元素清單。

  • Oxygen, Hydrogen, Sulfur. You can correctly say Priestley discovered Oxygen but Lavoisier

    氧氣,氫氣,硫磺。你可以正確的說普里斯特利發現了氧氣,但拉瓦錫卻發現了硫。

  • invented it. So with Priestley's experimental work on gases, with discovery of Oxygen,

    發明了它。所以與普里斯特利'對氣體的實驗工作,與發現氧氣。

  • with Lavoisier's articulation of a system of language, we have the whole conceptual

    與Lavoisier'對語言系統的闡述,我們有整個概念的

  • scheme in which Nineteenth Century academic work is built. Twentieth Century industrial

    十九世紀學術工作的計劃。二十世紀工業

  • innovation. We have pharmaceuticals, we have biotechnology, we have cell phones. "Plastics?"

    創新。我們有製藥,我們有生物技術,我們有手機。 "塑膠?&quot。

  • We have plastics. That's exactly right. And all these things begin with the discovery

    我們有塑膠。那'是完全正確的。而所有這些東西都是從發現開始的

  • of Oxygen. That's where it starts. "That's a lot to breathe in".

    的氧氣。這就是它開始的地方."這是一個很大的呼吸"。

  • In the early Nineteenth Century a British school teacher named John Dalton was hard at work pursuing his fascination

    十九世紀初,一位名叫約翰-道爾頓的英國學校教師正在努力追求自己的魅力。

  • with chemistry which would lead to our next great discovery. Dalton's experiments showed

    與化學,這將導致我們下一個偉大的發現。道爾頓的實驗表明

  • that the known elements such as Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Carbon combined in definite and constant

    已知的元素如氧、氫、碳等以確定的、恆定的方式結合在一起。

  • proportions. From his calculations he hypothesized that the elements must be made up of smaller

    比例。根據他的計算,他推測這些元素一定是由較小的元素組成的。

  • invisible pieces of matter with relative and distinctive weights. He called these pieces

    不可見的物質碎片,具有相對而獨特的重量。他把這些碎片稱為

  • of matter atoms. "So, what did Dalton discover?" Dalton's great discovery was what he called

    物質原子的"那麼,道爾頓發現了什麼?"道爾頓'的偉大發現是他所謂的。

  • the 'relative weights of ultimate particles'. "Ultimate particles." That's what he called

    的'終極粒子的相對重量'."終極粒子."這就是他所說的。

  • it. It's a lovely phrase. Later on when he went public it becomes atomic weights. We

    它。它'是一個可愛的短語。後來他上市後,就變成了原子量。我們

  • know it as atomic weights. but it was ultimate particles. "So he used the word atoms?" He used the word atoms, the idea

    知道它是原子重量.但它是終極粒子."所以他用了原子這個詞?"他用了原子這個詞,這個概念。

  • of an atom of course goes back to Democritus, the problem is, it's an idea. Is it any use?

    一個原子的當然可以追溯到Democritus,問題是,它是一個想法。它有什麼用嗎?

  • And Dalton was the man who made the idea useful. That was his great contribution. "From his

    而道爾頓是讓這個想法變得有用的人。這是他的偉大貢獻。 "從他的。

  • work, Dalton developed what came to be known as his Atomic Theory. A revolutionary new

    工作,道爾頓發展了後來被稱為他的原子理論。一個革命性的新

  • system that defined the relationship between atoms and the elements. And it's an enormously

    系統,定義了原子和元素之間的關係。而這是一個巨大的

  • simple system and Dalton thinks very simply, very visually. Here are the elements, here

    簡單的系統和道爾頓認為非常簡單,非常直觀。這裡是元素,這裡

  • are the weight of the elements. Here are the complex molecules, and it's a wonderfully

    是元素的重量。這裡是複雜的分子,這是一個奇妙的'。

  • effective system. It connects the thing that chemists can do, weigh things in balances

    有效的系統。它把化學家能做的事情連接起來,用天平稱量事物的重量

  • with the things that you can't see; the ultimate world of atoms and that's genius. How important

    與你看不見的東西;原子的終極世界,這就是天才。多麼重要

  • was Dalton's discovery? His Atomic Theory helped generations of scientists further unravel

    是道爾頓'的發現?他的原子理論幫助一代又一代的科學家進一步揭開了原子理論的神祕面紗。

  • the mysteries of the atomic and molecular world, including our next great discovery.

    原子和分子世界的奧祕,包括我們的下一個偉大發現。

  • In the early 1800's French Chemist Joseph Gay-Lussac was conducting a series of experiments

    在1800年早期,法國化學家Joseph Gay-Lussac進行了一系列的實驗。

  • designed to study Dalton's Atomic Theory when he observed something odd. When he combined

    設計研究道爾頓'的原子理論時,他觀察到一些奇怪的東西。當他結合

  • equal volumes of different gases, and measured their reactions, the gases often produced

    等體積的不同氣體,並測量它們的反應,這些氣體往往會產生

  • twice the volume than he expected. How was this possible? The answer was provided in

    比他預想的體積大一倍。這怎麼可能呢?答案就在

  • 1811 by Amedeo Avogadro; a physics professor at the University of Turin in Italy.

    1811年由阿梅迪奧-阿伏加德羅;意大利都靈大學物理學教授。

  • While studying the results of Gay-Lussac's research, Avogadro had an insight. At the

    在研究蓋-呂薩克'的研究成果時,阿伏加德羅有了一個見解。在

  • time, it was believed that gases were made of single atoms. Avogadro realized this

    當時,人們認為氣體是由單原子構成的。阿伏加德羅意識到這一點

  • assumption was wrong. The gases were made of multiple atoms. What came to be known as

    假設是錯誤的。這些氣體是由多個原子組成的。後來被稱為

  • molecules. The realization that atoms could be rearranged to form molecules was the breakthrough

    分子。原子可以重新排列成分子的認識是一個突破

  • that enabled scientists to move out of the chemistry dark ages and begin systematically

    使得科學家們走出了化學黑暗時代,開始系統的

  • creating new compounds.

    創造新的化合物。

  • Our next great discovery occurred in the Nineteenth Century

    我們的下一個偉大發現發生在19世紀。

  • when many chemists believed that organic substances from organisms or living things were somehow

    當許多化學家認為來自生物體或生物體的有機物在某種程度上是

  • different from inorganic substances from non-living things, but that was about to change.

    不同於無機物與非生物的區別,但這種情況即將改變。

  • In 1828 Friedrick Wohler was working in his lab when something caught his eye.

    1828年,弗裡德里克-沃勒在實驗室工作時,有東西引起了他的注意。

  • Wohler had placed two inorganic chemicals in a beaker; Potassium Cyanate and Ammonium Sulfate.

    Wohler將兩種無機化學物放在燒杯中:氰酸鉀和硫酸銨。

  • Now when he looked at the beaker it contained a grams worth of small white needle shaped

    現在他看了看燒杯,裡面裝著一克白色的小針狀物

  • crystals. What made this remarkable was that Wolher thought he had seen these exact same

    晶體。讓人印象深刻的是,Wolher認為他曾見過這些一模一樣的東西

  • crystals once before, but with an important difference. Those crystals had been organic.

    晶體之前,但有一個重要的區別。那些晶體曾是有機物。

  • He had crystalized them while studying the chemistry of various substances found in urine.

    他是在研究尿液中各種物質的化學成分時將它們結晶化的。

  • To make sure he wasn't mistaken, Wolher analyzed the new crystals. There was no mistake.

    為了確定自己沒有弄錯,沃赫分析了新的水晶。沒有錯。

  • These crystals were the same as those he had isolated before. He had made urea, which was something

    這些晶體和他之前分離出來的那些晶體是一樣的。他製造了尿素,這是一種

  • that had come out of a living thing. He had made it out of inorganic substances. Later

    從一個活物中產生的。他是用無機物做出來的。後來

  • he said in a personal letter not in the paper that he wrote about it that I have made

    他在一封私人信件中說,而不是在他寫的報紙上說,我已經做了。

  • urea without a kidney. He knew what he had done. "Meet Roald Hoffmann, winner of the

    沒有腎臟的尿素。他知道他做了什麼。 "遇到羅爾德-霍夫曼,獲得了

  • 1981 Nobel Prize in chemistry for developing a theory to explain organic chemical reactions.

    1981年因提出解釋有機化學反應的理論而獲得諾貝爾化學獎。

  • So why is this discovery of artificially making urea? Why is that a great discovery?

    那麼,為什麼這個人工製造尿素的發現?為什麼說是一個偉大的發現呢?

  • You know there comes a time when you need a discovery and it's sometimes a single one to cross a

    你知道有一個時候,你需要一個發現,它'有時是一個單一的一個跨越一個

  • border, to break down a wall. This is what this discovery was. It's not that it was so

    邊境,要拆牆。這就是這個發現。它'不是說它是如此。

  • important in and of itself but at the time that it came, the simple making of urea out

    但在它出現的時候,簡單的尿素製造出來的東西是很重要的。

  • of two inorganic chemicals. When it came, it caught people's attention. The whole story

    的兩種無機化學物。來時,引起了人們'的注意。整個故事

  • of the discovery is about the underlying basis, the building blocks of all matter, organic

    的發現是關於所有物質的根本基礎,即有機物的構件。

  • and inorganic being the same; atoms.

    和無機是一樣的;原子。

  • If these lego bricks had existed in the early part

    如果這些樂高磚在早期就存在的話

  • of the Nineteenth Century, chemists could have used them to help illustrate something they

    十九世紀,化學家們可以用它們來幫助說明他們的一些東西。

  • were seeing in their experiments. A phenomenon that led to our next great discovery.

    在他們的實驗中看到的。這種現象導致了我們下一個偉大的發現。

  • The atoms of particular elements such as Sodium and Chlorine seemed to combine with each other

    鈉和氯等特殊元素的原子似乎相互結合了起來

  • according to fixed ratios. It was this combining power of atoms that inspired German chemist

    按照固定的比例。正是這種原子的結合力啟發了德國化學家的靈感

  • August Kekule to develop a system for visualizing the chemical structure of various molecules.

    奧古斯特-凱庫勒開發出一套系統,用於可視化各種分子的化學結構。

  • Kekule represented the atoms by their symbols, then added marks to indicate how they bonded

    Kekule用它們的符號來表示原子,然後加上標記來表示它們是如何結合的。

  • with each other. Like links in a chain. It was a simple yet elegant formula. Chemists

    彼此之間。 就像鏈條上的環節。 這是一個簡單而優雅的公式。化學家

  • now had a device for clearly illustrating the chemical structures of the molecules they

    現在有了一種裝置,可以清楚地說明他們的分子的化學結構。

  • were studying. There was just one problem. Benzene was the only known chemical that would

    正在學習。只是有一個問題。苯是唯一已知的化學物質,將

  • not fit Kekule's formula. Benzene's chain of Carbon and Hydrogen atoms required more

    不符合Kekule'的公式。苯'的碳原子和氫原子鏈需要更多的

  • combining power than the formula would allow.

    合力比公式所允許的。

  • "And all these organic chemistry professors are puzzling about it and offering different explanations.

    "而這些有機化學教授都對此感到疑惑,並給出不同的解釋。

  • And one of them; August Kekule sitting by the fire one evening falls asleep and starts to dream about a snake.

    而其中的一個人;奧古斯特-凱庫勒在一個晚上坐在火堆旁睡著了,開始夢見一條蛇。

  • And if you think about a snake, what Kekule dreams of is the snake catches it's own tail.

    而如果你想到一條蛇,克庫勒夢到的是蛇抓住了它自己的尾巴'。

  • And if you think about this, maybe the thing is a ring and that gives you an answer to the puzzle.

    而如果你想一想,也許這個東西就是一個戒指,這就給了你一個難題的答案。

  • "The six Carbon atoms of the Benzene molecule weren't linked in a chain.

    "苯分子的六個碳原子並沒有連成一條鏈。

  • Like the snake, they formed a ring. Each with a Hydrogen atom attached, with alternating

    像蛇一樣,它們形成了一個環。每個環上都連接著一個氫原子,交替地排列在一起

  • single and double bonds. Within a short time Kekule's insight was confirmed and its effect

    單鍵和雙鍵。在很短的時間內,Kekule'的見解就得到了證實,其效果是

  • was revolutionary. Chemists knew that all organic substances contained one or more carbon

    是革命性的。化學家們知道,所有的有機物都含有一個或多個碳。

  • atoms and their molecules. With Kelkule's discovery they now had the underlying formula

    原子及其分子。隨著Kelkule'的發現,他們現在有了基本的公式。

  • to explain how carbon combined with other molecules

    解釋碳是如何與其他分子結合的。

  • to form a world of chemical compounds. The modern era of organic chemistry was born.

    以形成一個化學化合物的世界。現代有機化學時代誕生了。

  • Now with this thing being so simple, that is to say the snake bites its tail.

    現在這個事情這麼簡單,那就是蛇咬尾巴。

  • Why is this considered a great discovery? --Here's a recipe for new drugs, new medicines,

    為什麼這被認為是一個偉大的發現?--這裡有一個新藥、新藥的配方。

  • new understanding. If you go back in time in Dalton's day couple of hundred compounds.

    新的理解。如果你回到道爾頓'的時代幾百個化合物。

  • Soon it's a couple of thousand, soon it's 10,000. Astonishing. Soon it's a hundred thousand.

    很快就會有幾千人,很快就會有一萬人。驚人的。很快就有十萬了。

  • Last year 15 million new compounds were registered, all built on this simple template.

    去年有1500萬個新的化合物被註冊,都是建立在這個簡單的模板上。

  • This is a work of genius.

    這是一部天才之作。

  • In 1869, a Russian chemistry professor named Dmitri Mendeleev was writing

    1869年,一位名叫德米特里-門捷列夫的俄國化學教授在撰寫

  • a text book for his students, when he began to wonder how we could best explain to them

    當他開始想我們如何才能最好地向學生解釋時,他說:"我的學生們都很喜歡我的課本。

  • the 63 elements that were known at the time. To help formulate his thoughts

    當時已知的63種元素。為了幫助制定他的想法

  • he constructed a card for each element. On each card he wrote the name of the element,

    他為每個元素製作了一張卡片。他在每張卡片上寫下了元素的名稱。

  • its atomic weight, it's typical properties, and its similarities to other elements.

    它的原子量,它的典型特性,以及它與其他元素的相似性。

  • He then laid the cards out like a game of solitaire and began arranging them over and over, searching for patterns.

    然後,他像玩紙牌遊戲一樣把牌擺好,開始反覆排列,尋找規律。

  • Then came the moment of discovery.

    然後是發現的時刻。

  • Before him was something extraordinary. The elements fell into 7 vertical groupings.

    擺在他面前的是一些不同尋常的東西。這些元素分為7個垂直組。

  • Each periodic grouping had members that resembled one another,

    每一個週期性的分組都有彼此相似的成員。

  • both chemically and physically. Mendeleev had discovered the periodic table of the elements,

    在化學上和物理上都是如此。門捷列夫發現了元素週期表。

  • a map showing how all of the elements related to one another.

    顯示所有元素如何相互關聯的地圖;

  • A map so precise that Mendeleev believed he could also use it to predict the

    一張地圖精確到門捷列夫相信他也可以用它來預測世界的變化

  • existence and properties of three elements no one had yet discovered.

    三種元素的存在和特性還沒有人發現。

  • One would be like Boron he said. One like Aluminum, and one like Silicon.

    他說,一個會像硼。一個像鋁,一個像硅。

  • Eventually the elements were discovered and Mendeleev was proven right.

    最終,元素被發現,門捷列夫被證明是正確的。

  • There was actually a little bit of controversy because a German chemist and Lothar Meyer

    其實是有一點爭議的,因為一個德國化學家和洛塔爾-梅耶爾

  • had come up with roughly the same idea but Meyer didn't quite have as much courage. So

    曾提出過大致相同的想法,但梅耶爾並沒有那麼大的勇氣。所以

  • that's actually an interesting thing.

    這其實是一件很有趣的事情。

  • Here's this German who comes up with the same idea of periodicity

    這裡'是這個德國人,他提出了同樣的週期性的想法。

  • of which there were hints already before, but he doesn't make the predictions

    的,之前就已經有提示,但他不做預言

  • that Mendeleev does. So here we see the power of a risky prediction in

    門捷列夫所做的。所以在這裡我們看到了風險預測的力量,在。

  • having people except a theory. There is nothing more powerful

    有的人除了理論。沒有比這更強大的了

  • than making a prediction that's not obvious. --And then have it come true."

    比做一個預測,'不明顯。--然後讓它成真了&quot。

  • And have it come true. The periodic table is our icon. I mean that

    並讓它成為現實。週期表是我們的標誌。我的意思是

  • it's what we associate with chemistry. You go into any chemistry room and you see it.

    它'是我們與化學相關聯。你走進任何一間化學室,你都會看到它。

  • Why is the periodic table of elements significant? it forever changed the way that everyone would

    為什麼元素週期表意義重大,它永遠改變了大家對元素週期表的認識。

  • learn and understand the elements.

    學習和了解要素。

  • The periodic table of elements is to chemistry as notes of music are to a Beethoven sonata.

    元素週期表之於化學,就像音樂的音符之於貝多芬奏鳴曲一樣。

  • In honor of Mendeleev, his name is now literally

    為了紀念門捷列夫,他的名字現在是字面意義上的。

  • attached to the periodic table. The element 101 was named after him. It's called Mendelevium.

    附在週期表上。101號元素是以他的名字命名的。它叫門德爾維姆。

  • It's not only chemists who like the periodic table, I hear you carry one around.

    不僅僅是化學家喜歡週期表,聽說你還隨身帶著一張。

  • --I do carry one, yes sir. --Show me!

    --我確實帶了一個,是的,先生--給我看看!

  • --You never know. And I seem to use it a lot." --Let's see.

    --你永遠不知道。而且我似乎經常使用它。 " --讓我們'看看。

  • --It's a small one. --So I'm going to give you a test. Um what is under Nitrogen on the periodic table?

    --這是一個小的。--所以我給你做個測試。嗯,什麼是氮在週期表下?

  • --Nitrogen is 7. --Yes.

    --氮氣為7。 --是的

  • --Well I have to think a second. "Sulfur."

    --我得想一想 硫磺..;

  • --No you're wrong. Close, you're one off. --That's why I carry it.

    --不,你錯了。關閉,你是一個關閉。 --這就是為什麼我帶著它。

  • --It's Phosphorus. --Oh Phosphorous, Phosphorus. 15.

    --這是磷。 --哦,磷,磷。15.

  • --Phosphorus is 15? -- Yeah, you have to add 8 at that point.

    --磷是15嗎 是的,你必須在這一點上加上8。

  • See that's why I carry it. I can't remember. So it's

    看吧,這就是為什麼我帶著它。我不記得了。所以它

  • seven plus 8. 15, Phosphorus. Okay. There's there's a pattern there. I get it now.

    七加八。15,磷。好吧,有一個模式。有一個模式在那裡。我現在明白了。

  • At the turn of the 19th century, electricity was all the rage.

    19世紀初,電力風靡一時。

  • people were busy making batteries and connecting them to just about

    人們忙著製作電池,並將它們連接到幾乎所有的地方。

  • anything to see the reaction. Electricity was like a new kind of fire.

    任何東西,看看反應。電就像一種新的火。

  • One of the great battery junkies of the day was Humphry Davy, the self taught English chemist.

    當年偉大的電池迷之一是自學成才的英國化學家Humphry Davy。

  • In 1807 Davey was performing a battery experiment in his lab.

    1807年,戴維在實驗室裡進行電池實驗。

  • He melted some potash; a mineral found in the ground,

    他融化了一些鉀肥;一種在地表發現的礦物。

  • that also forms in the ashes of wood. Chemists had speculated that potash was a compound

    也是在木材的灰燼中形成的。化學家曾推測鉀肥是一種化合物

  • of several elements, but had not been able to prove it. Davy wanted

    的幾個要素,但一直無法證明這一點。戴維想

  • to see if electricity might provide the answer.

    看看電是否能提供答案。

  • He ran some wires from one of his biggest batteries to the melted potash.

    他從他的一個最大的電池裡跑出一些電線來熔化鉀肥。

  • Pure Potassium began to emerge. Davy had discovered the power of electricity to react with chemicals and transform them.

    純鉀開始出現。戴維發現了電的力量,可以與化學物質發生反應並轉化它們。

  • Eventually electrochemistry led to the rise of the

    最終,電化學導致了電化學的興起。

  • aluminum industry, the production of semiconductors, solar panels, LED displays, even rechargeable lithium batteries.

    鋁產業,生產半導體、太陽能電池板、LED顯示屏,甚至充電鋰電池。

  • In the 1850s Robert Bunsen and his research collaborator Gustav Kirchhoff

    19世紀50年代,羅伯特-本森和他的研究合作者古斯塔夫-基希霍夫(Gustav Kirchhoff)。

  • conducted a series of experiments to determine why substances

    進行了一系列的實驗,以確定為什麼物質

  • emitted specific colors when placed in a flame. The color they determined, indicates what

    放在火焰中時,會發出特定的顏色。他們確定的顏色,表示什麼

  • elements are present in the substance. For example, if Sodium is

    物質中存在的元素。例如,如果鈉是

  • placed in a flame, they observe shades of yellow.

    放在火焰中,他們觀察到黃色的陰影。

  • Copper, shades of green. Strontium, shades of red.

    銅,綠色的陰影。鍶,紅色的陰影。

  • That was a good one.

    這是一個很好的。

  • While watching the experiments Kirchoff was reminded of how a prism spreads light into a rainbow of colors.

    在觀看實驗的時候,Kirchoff想起了稜鏡是如何將光線傳播成彩虹色的。

  • So, using a prism and the pieces of a small telescope Bunsen and Kirchoff built the first spectroscope,

    於是,利用稜鏡和小型望遠鏡的碎片,本森和基爾喬夫製造了第一臺分光鏡。

  • an analytical device they hoped would help them see the spectra

    他們希望通過一個分析設備來幫助他們看到光譜。

  • coming from heated substances. And it worked. As an element

    來自於加熱的物質。而且它的工作。作為一種元素

  • was put into the flame of a bunsen burner, the light from the heated substance passed

    放入本生爐的火焰中,被加熱的物質的光線會通過

  • through the prism of the spectroscope where it then spread into a

    通過分光鏡的稜鏡,它在那裡擴散成

  • ribbon-like spectrum of colors, riddled with dark lines. The combinations

    色帶狀的光譜,佈滿了暗線。這些組合

  • of bright colors and dark lines were like barcodes, indicating what atoms were present.

    的亮色和暗線就像條碼一樣,表明有哪些原子存在。

  • When burned, each element produced a completely unique spectrum.

    燃燒時,每種元素都會產生完全獨特的光譜。

  • Using their spectroscope, Bunsen and Kirchoff were able to discover two new elements; Cesium and Rubidium.

    利用他們的光譜儀,Bunsen和Kirchoff能夠發現兩種新元素:銫和銣。

  • One day Bunsen and Kirchoff decided to test their invention with sunlight.

    有一天,本森和基爾喬夫決定用太陽光來測試他們的發明。

  • It produced a spectrum that featured two lines that were identical to those in the spectrum

    它所產生的光譜中,有兩條線與光譜中的線相同。

  • produced by sodium. Bunsen and Kirchoff had discovered the presence

    鈉產生的。Bunsen和Kirchoff發現了鈉的存在。

  • of sodium in the sun 93 million miles away.

    9300萬英里外的太陽中的鈉。

  • Suddenly scientists had a tool to help them study the chemistry of the heavens.

    突然間,科學家們有了一個工具來幫助他們研究天體的化學。

  • [Lift off. We have lift off.]

    [起飛,我們起飛了]

  • Today the legacy of this great discovery lives on in the exploration of space.

    今天,這一偉大發現的遺產在探索太空的過程中得以延續。

  • A form of spectroscopy is being used to study the

    目前正在使用一種光譜學的形式來研究

  • atmospheres of planets, to search for signs of water. Signs of life.

    大氣層的行星,尋找水的跡象。生命的跡象

  • Our next great discovery is the story of Joseph Thomson and the electron.

    我們的下一個偉大發現是約瑟夫-湯姆遜和電子的故事。

  • ["Here we are."] --So everything that we can see is made of chemicals.

    ["我們在這裡."]--所以我們能看到的一切都由化學物質構成。

  • --That's right --What's the future?"

    --沒錯--未來是什麼?&quot。

  • --And they're all bonded through electron interactions. --Thank goodness.

    --它們都是通過電子相互作用結合在一起的。--謝天謝地

  • "To find out about it I paid a visit to Harvard University.

    "為了瞭解情況,我到哈佛大學進行了訪問。

  • Dudley Herschbach is a professor here and winner of the 1986 Nobel Prize in Chemistry...

    杜德利-赫斯巴赫是這裡的教授,也是1986年諾貝爾化學獎得主。

  • for his research into the dynamics of chemical elementary processes.

    以表彰他對化學元素過程動力學的研究。

  • --So Thomson discovered the electron. --Well it is of course said that way, but he didn't discover it in

    --所以湯姆遜發現了電子。 --好吧,當然是這樣說的,但他並沒有發現電子。--當然是這樣說的,但他並沒有發現電子。

  • the sense that he said, "Eureka! I've got this thing. Here it is." He did an experiment

    的感覺,他說,"尤里卡! 我'已經得到了這個東西。在這裡,它是."他做了一個實驗。