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  • (Chris Lonsdale) The people in the back, can you hear me clearly?

    在後面的人你們聽得清楚嗎?

  • OK, good.

    很好

  • Have you ever held a question in mind

    你是否曾經仔細想過一個問題想很久

  • for so long that it becomes part of how you think?

    到最後它影響了你的思考方式

  • Maybe even part of who you are as a person?

    甚至影響了你是誰?

  • Well I've had a question in my mind for many, many years

    我自己就曾經想過一個問題 想了好多年

  • and that is: How can you speed up learning?

    就是:如何加速學習的腳步?

  • Now, this is an interesting question

    這是一個很有趣的問題

  • because if you speed up learning, you can spend less time at school.

    因為如果你可以學得更快 就不需要花那麼多時間上學

  • And if you learn really fast, you probably wouldn't have to go to school at all.

    如果你真的能學得很快 也許甚至根本不需要上學

  • Now, when I was young, school was sort of OK but...

    當我年輕的時候 學校算還可以 但是

  • I found quite often that school got in the way of learning

    我常覺得學校阻礙了學習

  • so I had this question in mind: How do you learn faster?

    所以我心中有了這個疑問:該如何學習得更快?

  • And this began when I was very, very young,

    這從我很小的時候就開始了

  • when I was 11 years old,

    那時我11歲

  • I wrote a letter to researchers in the Soviet Union, asking about hypnopaedia,

    我寫了一封信給蘇聯的研究人員 詢問睡眠學習的事

  • this is sleep-learning, where you get a tape recorder, you put it beside your bed

    睡眠學習就是將一台錄音機放在床邊

  • and it turns on in the middle of the night when you're sleeping,

    然後它在半夜你睡覺的時候開始播放

  • and you're supposed to be learning from this.

    而照理來說你應該可以從中學習

  • A good idea, unfortunately it doesn't work.

    很好的點子 可惜並沒有成功

  • But, hypnopaedia did open the doors to research in other areas

    但睡眠學習的確為其他領域的研究打開了一扇門

  • and we've had incredible discoveries about learning that began with that first question.

    那個最初的疑問幫我們得到了在學習上不可思議的發現

  • I went on from there to become passionate about psychology

    從那時我開始展開了對心理學的熱情

  • and I have been involved in psychology in many different ways

    我用各種方式投入了心理學

  • for the rest of my life up until this point.

    一直到今日

  • In 1981 I took myself to China

    1981年我到了中國

  • and I decided that I was going to be native level in Chinese inside two years.

    我決定要在兩年內讓我的中文程度到達母語的水準

  • Now, you need to understand that in 1991, everybody thought

    你必須要曉得 在1991年的時候 所有人都認為

  • Chinese was really, really difficult and that a westerner could study for 10 years or more

    中文非常、非常困難 西方人可能要花超過10年來學習

  • and never really get very good at it.

    卻還沒有辦法精通

  • And I also went in with a different idea

    而同時我有個不同的想法

  • which was: taking all of the conclusions from psychological research up to that point

    就是將所有心理學研究迄今的成果

  • and applying them to the learning process.

    應用在學習的過程中

  • What was really cool was that in six months I was fluent in Mandarin Chinese

    很酷的是 我的中文在六個月內已經很流利

  • and took a little bit longer to get up to native.

    但又花了更長一點的時間才達到母語的水準

  • But I looked around and I saw all of these people from different countries

    但當我看了看周遭 看這些不同國家來的人

  • struggling terribly with Chinese,

    很辛苦地跟中文奮戰

  • I saw Chinese people struggling terribly to learn English and other languages,

    看到中國人辛苦的和英文以及其他外文奮戰

  • and so my question got refined down to:

    所以我重新縮小了我的問題:

  • How can you help a normal adult learn a new language quickly, easily and effectively?

    如何幫助一個普通成人快速、簡單和有效地學習新語言?

  • Now this is a really, really important question in today's world.

    這是當今世界上非常、非常重要的一個問題

  • We have massive challenges with environment,

    我們面臨環境的巨大挑戰

  • we have massive challenges with social dislocation,

    我們面臨社會秩序重置的巨大挑戰

  • with wars, all sorts of things going on

    還有戰爭 這些東西正不斷的進行著

  • and if we can't communicate, we're really going to have difficulty solving these problems.

    而如果我們沒有辦法溝通 我們會有解決這些問題的困難

  • So we need to be able to speak each other's languages,

    所以我們必需要有能力說彼此的語言

  • this is really, really important.

    這真的非常、非常的重要

  • The question it is: How do you do that?

    問題是到底該怎麼做?

  • Well, it's actually really easy. You look around for people who can already do it,

    你看看周遭那些已經做到了的人

  • you look for situations where it's already working

    找找那些已經成功的案例

  • and then you identify the principles and apply them.

    然後找出其中的原則並加以應用

  • It's called modelling and I've been looking at language learning

    這叫做模型化 我已經觀察語言學習

  • and modelling language learning for about 15 to 20 years now.

    並將語言學習模型化 至今大約15到20年了

  • And my conclusion, my observation from this is

    而從中得到我的結論、我的觀察是

  • that any adult can learn a second language to fluency inside six months.

    任何一個成年人都能在六個月內中掌握一個第二外語

  • Now when I say this, most people think I'm crazy, this is not possible.

    當我這麼說的時候 大部分的人會覺得我瘋了 這不可能

  • So let me remind everybody of the history of human progress,

    所以讓我們複習一下人類的進程

  • it's all about expanding our limits.

    就是不斷地突破極限

  • In 1950 everybody believed that running one mile in four minutes was impossible

    在1950年的時候 所有人都認為在4分鐘內跑1哩路是不可能的事情

  • and then Roger Bannister did it in 1956 and from there it's got shorter and shorter.

    但後來 Roger Bnnister 在1956年時做到了 從此之後所需的時間愈來愈短

  • 100 years ago everybody believed that heavy stuff doesn't fly.

    100年前 所有的人都相信笨重的東西不能飛

  • Except it does and we all know this.

    直到它實現的時候 而我們現在都曉得

  • How does heavy stuff fly?

    笨重的東西要怎麼飛?

  • We reorganise the material using principles that we have learned

    我們用觀察自然所學到的原理重新組裝材料

  • from observing nature, birds in this case.

    在這個例子中就是鳥類

  • And today we've gone even further...

    今天我們已經突破了更多

  • We've gone even further, so you can fly a car.

    今天我們已經突破了更多 所以你甚至可以開車在空中飛

  • You can buy one of these for a couple 100.000 US dollars.

    你可以用幾十萬美金買一輛

  • We now have cars in the world that fly.

    現在我們有會飛的車了

  • And there's a different way to fly which we've learned from squirrels.

    這是另一種飛行的方式 是我們和松鼠學的

  • So all you need to do is copy what a flying squirrel does,

    所以你要做的就是模仿飛鼠飛翔

  • build a suit called a wing suit and off you go, you can fly like a squirrel.

    做一件飛行衣 然後起飛 你就可以像飛鼠一樣飛翔

  • Now most people, a lot of people, I wouldn't say everybody

    現在 大部分的人 多數人 我不會說是全部人

  • but a lot of people think they can't draw.

    但是有很多的人認為他們不會畫畫

  • However there are some key principles, five principles that you can apply

    然而有一些重要的原則 你可以應用五個原則

  • to learning to draw and you can actually learn to draw in five days.

    來學會畫畫 其實你可以在五天內學會畫畫

  • So, if you draw like this, you learn these principles for five days

    所以 如果你本來畫得像這樣

  • and apply them and after five days you can draw something like this.

    你用五天學會這些原則並加以應用 你就可以畫出像這樣的東西

  • Now I know this is true because that was my first drawing

    我知道這是真的是因為這是我一開始的畫

  • and after five days of applying these principles that was what I was able to do.

    這是我在運用了這些原則五天後的成果

  • And I looked at this and I went:

    我看著這張圖 心想

  • "Wow, so that's how I look like when I'm concentrating so intensely

    哇!這就是我高度集中專注力的結果

  • that my brain is exploding."

    專注到我的頭腦簡直要爆炸了

  • So, anybody can learn to draw in five days

    所以說任何人都可以在五天內學會畫畫

  • and in the same way, with the same logic,

    相同的方式、相同的邏輯

  • anybody can learn a second language in six months.

    任何人都可以在六個月內學會一種第二外語

  • How? There are five principles and seven actions.

    該怎麼做呢?有五個原則和七個行動

  • There may be a few more but these are absolutely core.

    也許有更多 但這些絕對是最核心的

  • And before I get into those I just want to talk about two myths,

    在談到那之前 我想先談談兩個迷思

  • I want to dispel two myths.

    我想要打破兩個迷思

  • The first is that you need talent.

    第一個:你需要天賦

  • Let me tell you about Zoe.

    讓我告訴你Zoe的故事

  • Zoe came from Australia, went to Holland, was trying to learn Dutch,

    Zeo來自澳洲 她去到到荷蘭 並嘗試學習荷語

  • struggling extremely, extremely... a great deal

    她在學習荷語中極端地痛苦掙扎

  • and finally people were saying: "You're completely useless,"

    直到最後其它人對她說:"你真沒用"

  • "you're not talented," "give up," "you're a waste of time"

    "你沒有天份"、"放棄吧"、"你在浪費時間"

  • and she was very, very depressed.

    她感到非常的沮喪

  • And then she came across these five principles,

    然後她學會了這五個原則

  • she moved to Brazil and she applied them

    她搬到巴西並開始運用這些原則

  • and in six months she was fluent in Portuguese,

    在六個月當中她已經能說流利的葡語

  • so talent doesn't matter.

    所以天賦一點也不重要

  • People also think that immersion in a new country is the way to learn a language.

    人們也覺得 沉浸在新的國家中是學習語言的方式

  • But look around Hong Kong, look at all the westerners

    但是看看香港 看看那些西方人

  • who've been here for 10 years, who don't speak a word of Chinese.

    住在這裡10年了 卻還不會說半句中文

  • Look at all the Chinese living in America, Britain, Australia, Canada

    看看那些住在美國、英國、澳洲和加拿大的中國人

  • have been there 10, 20 years and they don't speak any English.

    他們在那裏10年、20年卻還不會說英文

  • Immersion per se does not work.

    沉浸在環境中本身並不會奏效

  • Why? Because a drowning man cannot learn to swim.

    為什麼?因為一個溺水的人無法學會游泳

  • When you don't speak a language you're like a baby

    當你不會說一種語言的時候你就像是一個嬰孩

  • and if you drop yourself into a context

    而如果你把自己丟進一個環境

  • which is all adults talking about stuff over your head, you won't learn.

    那裡所有大人講的東西超過你能負荷的 你無法從中學習

  • So, what are the five principles that you need to pay attention to?

    所以 哪五個原則是你必須要注意的?

  • First: the four words,

    第一:四個關鍵字

  • attention, meaning, relevance and memory,

    專注、意義、相關性和記憶力。

  • and these interconnect in very, very important ways.

    他們非常重要地相互連結著

  • Especially when you're talking about learning.

    特別是當你在談論「學習」的時候

  • Come with me on a journey through a forest.

    跟我一起到一座森林去遊歷

  • You go on a walk through a forest

    你走入一座森林

  • and you see something like this... Little marks on a tree,

    然後你看到像這樣的東西:樹上的小記號

  • maybe you pay attention, maybe you don't.

    也許你有注意到 也可能沒有

  • You go another 50 metres and you see this...

    你繼續往前走50公尺然後看到這個‧‧‧

  • [image of bear footprint] You should be paying attention.

    (熊腳印)你應該要注意到了

  • Another 50 metres, if you haven't been paying attention, you see this...

    繼續往前50公尺 如果你沒有注意的話 你就會看到這個‧‧‧

  • [image of roaring bear] And at this point, you're paying attention.

    (吼叫的熊)到這個時候 你就會注意了

  • And you've just learned that this [marks on tree] is important,

    而你就學到 這(樹上的記號)很重要

  • it's relevant because it means this [roaring bear],

    這很相關 因為這就代表這(一隻吼叫的熊)

  • and anything that is related, any information related to your survival

    而任何和你的生存相關的資訊

  • is stuff that you're going to pay attention to

    就是你必須要注意的

  • and therefore you're going to remember it.

    然後你就會記得

  • If it's related to your personal goals

    如果這和你的個人目標相關

  • then you're going to pay attention to it,

    那你就會注意

  • if it's relevant, you're going to remember it.

    如果是相關的 你就會記得

  • So, the first rule, first principle for learning a language

    所以 第一個學習語言的原則

  • is focus on language content that is relevant to you.

    就是聚焦在和你相關的語言內容上

  • Which brings us to tools.

    這就要談到工具了

  • We master tools by using tools and we learn tools the fastest

    我們透過使用這些工具來精通工具的使用方法 而我們能最快地學會使用工具

  • when they are relevant to us.

    就是在它和我們相關的時候

  • So let me share a story.

    我來分享一個故事

  • A keyboard is a tool.

    鍵盤是一個工具

  • Typing Chinese a certain way, there are methods for this. That's a tool.

    用特定的方法來打中文字 有各種方式 就是工具

  • I had a colleague many years ago

    很多年前我有一個同事

  • who went to night school; Tuesday night, Thursday night,

    她參加一個補習班:星期二晚上、星期四晚上

  • two hours each time, practising at home,

    每次兩小時 又在家練習

  • she spent nine months, and she did not learn to type Chinese.

    她花了九個月 但還是沒有學會打中文字

  • And one night we had a crisis.

    有一次我們陷入危機

  • We had 48 hours to deliver a training manual in Chinese.

    我們得在48小時之內送出一份中文的訓練手冊

  • And she got the job, and I can guarantee you

    她負責這項工作 然後我向你保證

  • in 48 hours, she learned to type Chinese

    她在48小時之內學會了打中文字

  • because it was relevant, it was meaningful, it was important,

    因為這是相關、有意義而且重要的

  • she was using a tool to create value.

    她正用這項工具在創造價值

  • So the second principle for learning a language is to use your language

    所以第二個學習語言的原則就是:使用你的語言

  • as a tool to communicate right from day one.

    從第一天就把它當成一個溝通的工具

  • As a kid does.

    就像嬰孩一樣

  • When I first arrived in China, I didn't speak a word of Chinese,

    我剛到中國的時候 一個中文字都不會說

  • and on my second week I got to take a train ride overnight.

    第二個星期我必須坐上跨夜的火車

  • I spent eight hours sitting in the dining car talking to one of the guards on the train,

    我和一個車上的守衛坐在供餐的車廂中聊了八個小時

  • he took an interest in me for some reason,

    因為某些原因他對我感到興趣

  • and we just chatted all night in Chinese

    我們就用中文聊了整夜

  • and he was drawing pictures and making movements with his hands

    他畫圖、比手勢

  • and facial expressions and

    用臉部表情

  • piece by piece by piece I understood more and more.

    然後一點一滴的 我懂得愈來愈多

  • But what was really cool, was two weeks later,

    真正酷的是 兩個星期後

  • when people were talking Chinese around me,

    我身邊的人在說中文的時候

  • I was understanding some of this

    我可以理解其中的一部分

  • and I hadn't even made any effort to learn that.

    而那時我還沒有下任何功夫去學

  • What had happened, I'd absorbed it that night on the train,

    但就是這麼發生了 在火車上那晚我已經吸收了

  • which brings us to the third principle.

    這就要談到第三個原則

  • When you first understand the message,

    當你開始了解訊息了以後

  • then you will acquire the language unconsciously.

    你就會無形中學會這個語言

  • And this is really, really well documented now,

    這個現在已經被證實了

  • it's something called comprehensible input.

    稱之為可理解輸入

  • There's 20 or 30 years of research on this,

    有一份關於這個2、30年的研究報告

  • Stephen Krashen, a leader in the field,

    Stephen Krashen 是這個領域的先驅

  • has published all sorts of these different studies

    他發表了相關的各種研究

  • and this is just from one of them.

    這只是其中之一

  • The purple bars show the scores on different tests for language.

    長條代表不同語言測驗的成績

  • The purple people were people who had learned by grammar and formal study,

    紫色的是以文法和正規方式學習語言的人

  • the green ones are the ones who learned by comprehensible input.

    綠色的則是用可理解式輸入的方式學習的人

  • So, comprehension works. Comprehension is key

    所以綜合理解是有效的、是關鍵的

  • and language learning is not about accumulating lots of knowledge.

    學習語言並不是在累積知識

  • In many, many ways it's about physiological training.

    從很多方面而言 這是生理訓練

  • A woman I know from Taiwan did great in English at school,

    我認識一個從台灣來的女生 在學校英文成績優異

  • she got A grades all the way through,

    從小到大都拿A

  • went through college, A grades, went to the US

    以A等成績大學畢業 到了美國

  • and found she couldn't understand what people were saying.

    發現她沒有辦法聽懂別人在說些什麼

  • And people started asking her: "Are you deaf?"

    然後有人開始問她:你耳聾嗎?

  • And she was. English deaf.

    她是!英文聾人

  • Because we have filters in our brain that filter in

    因為我們腦中有個篩選器

  • the sounds that we are familiar with

    會選擇讓我們熟悉的聲音通過

  • and they filter out the sounds of languages that we're not.

    然後濾掉那些我們不熟悉的語言的聲音

  • And if you can't hear it, you won't understand it,

    而當你沒有辦法聽見 你就不會了解

  • if you can't understand it, you're not going to learn it.

    當你沒辦法了解 你就沒辦法學會

  • So you actually have to be able to hear these sounds.

    所以你必須要能夠聽見這些聲音

  • And there are ways to do that but it's physiological training.

    這是有辦法的 但這是生理訓練

  • Speaking takes muscle.

    說話會用到肌肉

  • You've got 43 muscles in your face,

    你的臉部有43條肌肉

  • you have to coordinate those in a way

    你必須要讓他們協力合作

  • that you make sounds that other people will understand.

    來發出別人能聽懂的聲音

  • If you've ever done a new sport for a couple of days,

    如果你曾經花幾天的時間從事過一種新的運動

  • and you know how your body feels? Hurts?

    你的身體會有什麼感覺?痛嗎?

  • If your face is hurting, you're doing it right.

    如果你的臉會痛的話 你就成功了

  • And the final principle is state. Psycho-physiological state.

    最後一個原則:心理狀態

  • If you're sad, angry, worried, upset, you're not going to learn. Period.

    如果你很難過、生氣、擔心、沮喪 你是沒有辦法持續學習的

  • If you're happy, relaxed, in an Alpha brain state, curious,

    如果你心情愉悅、放鬆、阿法腦波的狀態、好奇

  • you're going to learn really quickly,

    你就能學得很快

  • and very specifically you need to be tolerant of ambiguity.

    特別是你必須要能容忍一些模糊

  • If you're one of those people who needs to understand 100 per cent

    如果你是那種必須要瞭解百分之百所聽見的

  • every word you're hearing, you will go nuts,

    每一個字的那種人 你會抓狂

  • because you'll be incredibly upset all the time, because you're not perfect.

    因為你會感到愈來愈沮喪 因為你並不完美

  • If you're comfortable with getting some, not getting some,

    如果你能接受了解一部分、不懂一部分

  • just paying attention to what you do understand,

    注意你所理解的部分

  • you're going to be fine, you'll be relaxed and you'll be learning quickly.

    你就會沒有問題 你會很放鬆 而且學得很快

  • So based on those five principles, what are the seven actions that you take?

    所以基於這五個原則 哪七個行動是你要做的?

  • Number one: Listen a lot.

    第一:大量的聽

  • I call it brain soaking.

    我將它稱之為洗腦

  • You put yourself in a context where you're hearing tons and tons and tons of a language

    你將自己放在一個能聽見上千上萬這個語言的環境中

  • and it doesn't matter if you understand it or not.

    你能不能了解並不重要

  • You're listening to the rhythms, you're listening to patterns that repeat,

    你在聽一個節奏、一個重複的韻律

  • you're listening to things that stand out.

    你在聽那跳出來的東西

  • (Speaking Chinese) 泡脑子 (pào nǎozi)

    (中文)泡腦子 (洗腦)

  • (Speaking English) So, just soak your brain in this.

    所你就把你的頭腦浸到這裡面

  • The second action is that you get the meaning first, even before you get the words.

    第二個行動:先掌握語意、再了解字義

  • You go: "Well how do I do that? I don't know the words!"

    你說:這要怎麼做?我根本不認識這些字!

  • Well, you understand what these different postures mean.

    你了解這些不同的手勢代表什麼

  • Human communication is body language in many, many ways, so much body language.

    人類的溝通是各種的肢體語言 有太多的肢體語言

  • From body language you can understand a lot of communication,

    你可以從肢體語言當中了解很多的對話

  • therefore, you're understanding, you're acquiring through comprehensible input.

    所以 你理解 你用可理解式輸入的方式學習

  • And you can also use patterns that you already know.

    你也可以應用那些你已經了解的規則

  • If you're a Chinese speaker of Mandarin and Cantonese and you go to Vietnam,

    如果你是一個能說普通話和廣東話的人 去到越南

  • you will understand 60 per cent of what they say to you in daily conversation,

    你就能理解百分之六十他們的日常對話

  • because Vietnamese is about 30 per cent Mandarin, 30 per cent Cantonese.

    因為越南語大約是30%的普通話和30%的廣東話

  • The third action: Start mixing.

    第三個行動:重新組合

  • You probably have never thought of this

    你可能從來沒這樣想過

  • but if you've got 10 verbs, 10 nouns and 10 adjectives,

    不過如果你有10個動詞、10個名詞和10個形容詞

  • you can say 1000 different things.

    你就能說1000種不同的東西

  • Language is a creative process.

    語言是一個創造性的過程

  • What do babies do? OK, "me", "bath", "now".

    嬰孩怎麼做?"我"、"洗澡"、"現在"

  • OK, that's how they communicate.

    這就是他們的溝通方式

  • So start mixing, get creative, have fun with it,

    所以 開始重新組合、用創意、從中獲得樂趣

  • it doesn't have to be perfect, just has to work.

    不需要追求完美 只要有效

  • And when you're doing this, you focus on the core.

    當你這麼做的時候 你正聚焦在核心上