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  • When the next general election rolls around,

    下次美國大選

  • who will be eligible to show up at the polls

    哪些人依法得以投票

  • and vote for the President of the United States?

    選出美國總統呢?

  • It's really pretty simple.

    這個問題其實很簡單

  • If you are at least 18 years old,

    只要年滿18歲

  • a citizen of the U.S.,

    有美國公民身分

  • and a resident of a state,

    目前在美國居住

  • you can vote,

    就有投票權

  • assuming, that is, you are not a felon.

    除非犯了重罪被褫奪公權

  • Seems about right.

    差不多就是這樣

  • After all, the United States prides itself

    美國最引以為傲的成就

  • on being a democracy,

    就是民主政治

  • or a government in which the ultimate authority

    政府把至高無上的權力

  • lies with the citizens of the nation.

    交到老百姓手上

  • But it was not always this way.

    以前卻不是這樣子

  • In 1789, George Washington won

    西元1789年 華盛頓當選總統

  • the electoral college with 100% of the vote,

    他獲得所有選舉人的選票

  • but whose vote was it?

    那時候誰投了票?

  • Probably not yours.

    大概不是你或我

  • Only 6% of the entire United States population

    當時全國只有6%的人

  • was allowed to vote at all.

    擁有投票權

  • Voting was a right

    有投票權的人

  • that only white, male property owners

    只限於有錢的白人男性

  • were allowed to exercise.

    只有他們能投下神聖一票

  • By the 1820s and 1830s,

    19世紀20與30年代

  • the American population was booming

    美國人口大量增加

  • from the east coast into the western frontier.

    並從東岸往西岸擴張

  • Frontier farmers were resilient,

    開拓美西的農人 秉性堅強

  • self-reliant,

    自食其力

  • and mostly ineligible to vote

    但大部分不能投票

  • because they did not own land.

    原因是名下沒有土地

  • As these new areas of the nation became states,

    新開拓區成為州行政區後

  • they typically left out

    基本上才廢除

  • the property requirement for voting.

    投票權的財產限制

  • Leaders such as Andrew Jackson,

    傑克森總統

  • the United State's first common man President,

    是美國首位平民總統

  • promoted what he called universal suffrage.

    他提倡普選權制度

  • Of course, by universal suffrage,

    但傑克森的普選權概念

  • Jackson really meant universal white, male suffrage.

    範圍還是白人男性

  • All he emphasized was getting rid

    他的主要目標在於廢除

  • of the property requirement for voting,

    選舉權的財產限制

  • not expanding the vote beyond white men.

    並非讓非白人男性獲得選舉權

  • By the 1850s, about 55% of the adult population

    到了19世紀50年代 55%的美國成年人

  • was eligible to vote in the U.S.,

    擁有投票權

  • much better than 6%,

    比以前的6%好上許多

  • but far from everybody.

    但是離完全普及還差得遠

  • Then, in 1861,

    1861年

  • the American Civil War began

    南北戰爭開打

  • largely over the issue of slavery

    內戰的導火線是黑奴問題

  • and states' rights in the United States.

    及各州的職權問題

  • When it was all over,

    戰爭結束後

  • the U.S. ratified the 15th Amendment,

    美國通過憲法第15修正案

  • which promised that a person's right to vote

    承諾投票的權利

  • could not be denied

    不可侵犯

  • based on race,

    無論種族

  • color,

    膚色

  • or previous condition as a slave.

    是否曾為奴隸 都享有投票權

  • This meant that black men,

    意味著黑人男性

  • newly affirmed as citizens of the U.S.,

    這群當時剛被承認的美國公民

  • would now be allowed to vote.

    也獲得投票權了

  • Of course, laws are far from reality.

    但法規與事實出入很大

  • Despite the promise of the 15th Amendment,

    儘管有第15修正案的保障

  • intimidation kept African-Americans

    許多非裔美人遭到恐嚇

  • from exercising their voting rights.

    不敢行使投票權

  • States passed laws that limited

    美國政府還通過法案

  • the rights of African-Americans to vote,

    限制非裔美人的投票權

  • including things like literacy tests,

    例如須通過識字程度測驗

  • which were rigged

    該測驗經過調整

  • so that not even literate African-Americans

    連有一定程度的非裔美人

  • were allowed to pass,

    都考不過

  • and poll taxes.

    還有要繳稅才能投票

  • So, despite the 15th Amendment,

    因此 即使通過了第15修正案

  • by 1892, only about 6% of black men

    1892年只有6%的黑人男性

  • in Mississippi were registered to vote.

    密西西比居民有投票資格

  • By 1960, it was only 1%.

    到了1960年 更只剩1%

  • And, of course, women were still totally out

    女性則完全被排除在外

  • of the national voting picture.

    無權投票

  • It wasn't until 1920

    直到1920年

  • that the women's suffrage movement

    女性發起運動爭取

  • won their 30-year battle,

    經過多年奮鬥

  • and the 19th Amendment finally gave women the vote,

    憲法第19修正案 才賦予女性投票權

  • well, white women.

    但僅限白人女性

  • The restrictions on African-Americans,

    非裔美人的投票限制

  • including African-American women,

    不分男女

  • remained.

    當時依然存在

  • After World War II,

    二戰之後

  • many Americans began to question

    美國人紛紛質疑

  • the state of U.S. democracy.

    美國民主精神

  • How could a nation that fought

    美國不惜動用武力

  • for freedom and human rights abroad

    在海外伸張自由人權

  • come home and deny suffrage based on race?

    在家裡卻讓種族和投票權掛勾

  • The modern civil rights movement

    近代美國民權運動

  • began in the 1940s with those questions in mind.

    始於20世紀40年代 即以投票權爭議為開端

  • After years of sacrifice,

    多年來拋頭顱

  • bloodshed,

    灑熱血

  • and pain,

    歷盡波折

  • the United States passed

    終於塵埃落定

  • the Voting Rights Act of 1965,

    於1965年通過選舉權法

  • finally eliminating restrictions

    廢除投票權限制

  • such as literacy tests

    取消識字程度測驗

  • and protecting the voting rights

    維護人民投票權

  • promised under the 15th Amendment to the Constitution.

    落實憲法第15修正案的保障

  • Now, any citizen over the age of 21 could vote.

    公民年滿21歲就能投票

  • All seemed well

    看來沒問題了

  • until the United States went to war.

    美國參戰後 情況卻風雲變色

  • When the Vietnam War called up all men

    越戰徵召男性入伍

  • age 18 and over for the draft,

    年滿18歲就要服役

  • many wondered whether it was fair

    引發外界質疑公平性

  • to send men who couldn't vote to war.

    認為未滿 投票年齡的男性不該參戰

  • In 1971, the 26th Amendment to the Constitution

    1971年 憲法第26修正案出爐

  • made all citizens 18 and older

    規定公民年滿18歲

  • eligible to vote,

    即具有投票資格

  • the last major expansion of voting rights

    再度擴大了選舉權範圍

  • in the United States.

    至此 美國未再出現相關改革

  • Today, the pool of eligible voters in the U.S.

    現在 美國有投票權的公民

  • is far broader and more inclusive

    比以前更多 也不再排擠特定族群

  • than ever before in U.S. history.

    這個情形已是史無前例

  • But, of course, it's not perfect.

    但是還有努力空間

  • There are still active efforts

    仍然有人處心積慮

  • to suppress some groups from voting,

    打壓某些族群投票的權利

  • and only about 60% of those who can vote do.

    投票率更只有60%左右

  • Now that you know all the hard work

    經過了這麼多波折

  • that went into securing the right to vote,

    美國好不容易保障了投票權

  • what do you think?

    接下來還要思考幾個問題

  • Do enough citizens have the right to vote now?

    投票權真的完全普及了嗎?

  • And among those who can vote,

    有些人有投票權

  • why don't more of them do it?

    為什麼不投票呢?

When the next general election rolls around,

下次美國大選

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B1 中級 中文 TED-Ed 投票權 美國 修正案 男性 非裔

【TED-Ed】美國投票權之戰 (The fight for the right to vote in the United States - Nicki Beaman Griffin)

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    阿多賓 發佈於 2014 年 11 月 28 日
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