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  • Hey Everybody, so you know today...

  • (Punch)

  • That's for the terrible puns from last episode (Luxembourg)!

  • Take THAT!

  • It's for BOB SAGET!!

  • BOB SAGET!!!!

  • BOB SAGET!!!!!!

  • (Hard punch)

  • ANYWAY!!

  • It's time to learn Geography NOW!

  • Everyone, I'm your host Barby. Most people only know one thing about Madagascar:

  • Lemurs!

  • But if you dig deep, you will discover a country with one of the most unique demographic anomalies on the planet:

  • the people.

  • The people here are like the real treasure.

  • Awh, So you're saying "Lemurs aren't as important as humans?"

  • THAT'S SPECIESIST!!

  • (Political Geography)

  • Native Geograpeep wrote a cool quote in an email saying:

  • "Madagascar is shaped like the left footprint of the gods",

  • and when you observe this nation, you will definitely see the divine residue. First of all,

  • Madagascar is an island nation and the fourth largest island in the world located just off the coast of Eastern Africa near Mozambique.

  • The country is divided into 22 regions with the capital Antananarivo, sometimes called "Tana" for short.

  • Located in Analamanga region near the center of the country. After the capital, the largest cities are Toamasina in the East coast

  • and Antsirabe in the center. Although the country has about 70 domestic airports and air strips, mostly for transporting supplies to the outskirt villages,

  • the largest and only international airport is Ivato International in Antananarivo.

  • Transport in Madagascar is quite good as the 6th, 4th, and 7th highways connect the country north to south.

  • Unfortunately, only about 10% of their roadways are paved and many are affected by rain and cyclones.

  • It can take about six hours just to drive 60 miles simply because the road works.

  • Otherwise with a coastline of over 3000 miles, they are loaded with harbors and ports for shipping.

  • The largest one, of course, being Toamasina where most of the imports come in from the East.

  • It also transports about 75% of their imports and exports.

  • Wasn't there also like that "Libertalia" thing where the pirates came in to hideout and made like this weird utopian society in the 1600s?

  • That's why I hired you as my research assistant.

  • *say Hi to Kai. He's the new research guy*

  • The country has only two main railways: one mostly for cargo between Toamasina and Antanarivo;

  • and the southern route, the Fianarantsoa-Manakara line,

  • which carries passengers between the two towns that are not accessible by road.

  • Sorry if this stuff seems kind of really boring and technical, it's just I like showing the inner workings of a country's infrastructure

  • and how it operates, it's like, it's like opening up a pocket watch and explaining how all the gears and buttons make the whole thing function.

  • Pocket watch? What are you, 90 years old? When I look at you, Gen-Z kids (people born between '95 and 2009), sometimes I question if I actually am.

  • The country has dozens of smaller islands and islets around the coast, mostly on the west side. Places like Nosy Be, the largest and busiest resort in the country.

  • Wasn't there a crazy news story about that place, in which an angry mob went up to some French tourists and...

  • Yeah, yeah, yeah, but we got to keep this channel monetized.

  • Otherwise just like we mentioned in the Comoros episode, they have a few disputes over ownership of certain islands in the region.

  • All these islands though are administered by France. Otherwise some top notable sites of interest might include places like:

  • Alright, that was fun and just like Bob Saget's career, it's time to move on to weirder and stranger territories.

  • Yeah, yeah, see I'm still keeping the gag running. (hehehehe)

  • Oh good for you, Paul. That's amazing... Ken, I swear!

  • (Physical Geography)

  • In Madagascar it's like grandma's kitchen - everything is homemade with an original recipe, and this. First of all,

  • Madagascar is made up of four main landscape zones: the Wetter East Coast; the drier Savanna West Coast;

  • The really dry Southwest Coast; and the Central Highlands, known as the Tsaratanana Massif,

  • where you can find the tallest peak Maromokotro further up north.

  • It even snows on the peak sometimes (yay). These mountains also provide the source of all the major rivers including the longest, the Mangoky.

  • However Ikopa is probably the most important one as it flows through Antananarivo

  • known for its distinct red color, caused by river sediments. Not

  • too far off you can find lake Alaotra, the largest lake in the country. All right now that that's out of the way,

  • If you've watched any kind of documentary, or show, or incredibly accurate cartoon depiction of

  • Madagascar, I'm sure you're fully aware of how unique and distinct the country is when it comes to nature.

  • Due to geographic isolation, somewhere around 80 to 90% of the flora and fauna can only be found here and nowhere else. It's not only that,

  • but even though Madagascar is only like the 48th largest country in land area it makes up about 5% of the world's entire known biodiversity.

  • Some have even gone so far as to label it the 8th continent.

  • Yo, check out the new kid. Yeah, you can stay here with us.

  • Cool thanks, what's your stories ? Well, uh, I have the most mammals, and I got the most birds and I have the most diverse species in general.

  • Cool yeah, well, I got spiky rodents (Tenrec), owls with ears (Madagascar owl),

  • Hissing cockroaches, red frogs, Leaf geckos, and crack head monkey (Ayeaye) things with one long finger.

  • This guy is freaky. I like it. Yeah, they got some interesting stuff going on. On top of that, we cannot make an episode on Madagascar

  • without talking about the most iconic national animal, endemic to the island, the lemur,

  • which comes in over 100 different species, my favorite being the ringtail. On top of that, Madagascar's land in itself is pocketed with outstanding wonders,

  • like the Tsingy de Remahara stone forest, made out of niddle-shaped eroded limestone cliffs,

  • the Avenue of the baobabs, with incredibly thick trees only found here. *whoa*

  • Madagascar is also the largest producer of vanilla in the world, providing around 60 to 75% of the world's supply. Thank you Madagascar!

  • Minerals and sapphires are mined a lot here, you'll find the distinct Zebu cattle

  • all over, known for their fatty shoulder humps. They provide great meat and milk which brings us to, FOOD.

  • Some of the top notable dishes of the country might include things like:

  • and the National dish: Romazava.

  • Now keep in mind, just like we studied in the Laos episode, a lot of these dishes might include a touch of leftover

  • French influence and baguettes are everywhere. In fact, French is an official language. *Wha*, yeah, we'll explain that in...

  • (Demographics)

  • Now if you thought the landscaping animals were interesting, wait till you hear about the back story behind the people of Madagascar.

  • That's where the story gets real good. A person from Madagascar is called "Malagasy",

  • NOT "Madagascan", NOT "Madagascarian",

  • NOT Elon Musk who is "Mad-at-a-gas-car-ian".

  • Yeah, that joke :D

  • Malagasy, got it? First of all, the country is made up of about 25 million people

  • and has the westernmost Austronesian people group in the world. About 95% of the country identifies under the broader Malagasy title,

  • which is subdivided into about 20 different ethnic groups. The largest being the Merina, the Betsimisakara and the Betsileo.

  • The remaining percent is made up of other groups, mostly Europeans in french origin, East Africans, Chinese and Indians.

  • They use the Malagasy Ariary as their currency, they use the type C, D, E,

  • J & k outlets, which can all pretty much accommodate the same two-prong format most Europeans used.

  • That type E though is weird because it has like a socket that has its own prong that goes into the plug.

  • And they drive on the right side of the road. Now what exactly is a Malagasy person?

  • You would think: Well they're in africa so they're just African, right, you know, black. Done!

  • But ehhh, hold on. There's a little more to that, there's a twist.

  • And it has to do with Austronesians!

  • Yo Ken? Oh yeah? Yeah i'm gonna get a triple shot of espresso. You're like half filipino. These guys are technically like your cousins.

  • You explain this part. Uh, are you sure? Yeah don't question my tactics when running this show. Just do it!

  • I mean, doesn't Noah usually do the... (teleprompter)

  • Do it or I'm fired, right?

  • Ken Ken Ken, Do it Ken or you're fired. Ken I swear! ♫

  • ♬♬♬!

  • Madagascar is actually relatively newly inhabited island. Although evidence of human foraging goes back to about 2000 BC,

  • the early settlements occurred only about 380 AD and they were actually by Austronesian people

  • from the Southeast Asian islands. Overtime, Bantu people moved across the Mozambique channel and mixing with Austronesian settlers

  • creating a whole new race known as a Malagasy. This means that the average Malagasy person to a varying degree

  • has a genetic haploid structure derived from both Sub-Saharan African and Southeast Asian people.

  • This is why Malagasy people look different from mainland Africans and can come with a variety of skin tones.

  • Sometimes when meeting the locals, You might feel like you're more in a Polynesian or Southeast Asian country rather than Africa.

  • Phew! Was that good?

  • Ken, you dyed your hair green?

  • Ken I swear. Anyway!

  • Malagasy language is one key factor that sets Madagascar apart to as it's related to other languages in the Nusantara region of Southeast Asia.

  • Side note: that word i just said "Nusantara" is the term used for

  • the entire archipelago of islands in Southeast Asia. And the craziest thing is: the closest language to Malagasy is

  • actually the Ma'anyan language spoken in Borneo, not a native African one. You can find other similar words and

  • other Austronesian languages like the word for island "Nosy" versus Javanese "Nusa",

  • or Malay related words like "Riana" versus "Riam". On top of that, as a former French colony, French is an official language

  • mostly spoken by the government and educated officials. Although only about a quarter of the population are fluent, still you see French signs everywhere.

  • Culture-wise, as mentioned, there are 18 tribes each with their own distinct customs. For example: the Betsileo are known for their Famadahani dead celebrations

  • and Zebu rodeos. The Betsimisakara are known for being like the best fishers. The Sakalava are the

  • non-Malagasy Bantu derived tribe and they have their trance ceremonies that talk to their ancestors.

  • The Antandroy are like the ones that live near the spiny forest and are famous for their drum, spears and flutes.

  • The Bara are famous for their cattle herding and hair braids.

  • The Antaifasy are the desert sand people and so on. About half the country is Christian whereas the other half adhere to indigenous folk religions,

  • sometimes synchronize with Christianity making Madagascar one of the highest percentages of

  • populations that practice traditional beliefs. Speaking of which,

  • it's time to talk about History! in the quickest way I can put it:

  • Forages come in but maybe die out or disappear,

  • Austronesian sail in, Then the Bantus come in, Then the Arabs, The Portuguese, many small kingdoms,

  • This dude decided to unify it, English and French missionaries, deportation of the queen,

  • Colonization of the island in 1896, Independence in 1960,

  • 1972, university strike that resulted in the end of the first republic, This guy becomes president and kind of stays that way,

  • Protests, Modern era, and here we are today. some notable people of Malagasy descent or who came from Madagascar might include:

  • These soccer players,

  • This former president,

  • and these traditional singers. Alright time to move on to the last segment.

  • (Friendzone)

  • Now being a country that was raised from distant settlers mixing in,

  • Madagascar has always kind of understood what diplomacy was all about.

  • As a member of La Francophonie, they get along pretty well with other French-speaking countries

  • including their smaller island neighbors: Comoros, Mauritius and the overseas territories of Mayotte and Reunion.

  • Canada has been a huge investor though for decades especially in mineral mining. As a part of the SADC,

  • They get along with South Africa and other nations in the area especially for trade and business. Many people even have family members in Mozambique.

  • China today is the largest trade partner though with sales reaching about 765 million.

  • Historically, relations with the USA go back to the 19th century and were relatively close, except for that one period in time during the 70s

  • when they close ties because they favored the USSR but relations picked up back again in the 90s.

  • However, a lot of Malagasy people I've talked to have said france would probably be their best friend.

  • Yes there were the colonial years but their history and interaction is so closely intertwined

  • with a relationship that is better than ever today. France is the second largest trade and business provider,

  • they are the largest export receiver as well as foreign aid donator. They provide the largest number of european tourists and overall,

  • the two countries are very strongly linked. In conclusion, there is no place like Madagascar

  • with things in it found nowhere else. With a unique people and makeup, it's no wonder why they call themselves the "8th Continent".

  • Stay tuned. Malawi is coming up next.

Hey Everybody, so you know today...

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B1 中級

地理現在馬達加斯加 (Geography Now! MADAGASCAR)

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    林宜悉 發佈於 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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