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  • - If I asked you to show me a picture of your mother,

    我如果請你給我看一張你媽的照片

  • you wouldn't show me a, uh, closeup shot of her elbow.

    你不會只給我一張她手肘的特寫

  • But you could, and you'd be right.

    你要是真的這麼做 也不能說你不對

  • That would be a photo of her,

    那的確是一張你媽的照片

  • but it wouldn't feel right because it's not her face.

    但是感覺怪怪的 因為那不是她的臉部

  • That's how important faces are to us.

    這代表臉部對我們的重要性

  • We're going to see if forcing a facial expression

    我們要來看看刻意製造臉部表情

  • can change the way we feel.

    是否會改變我們的觀感

  • - Are you comfortable handling dog feces?

    你有辦法處理狗的糞便嗎?

  • Okay.

    好的

  • - And if you remove the ability

    而如果你失去

  • to make facial expressions,

    製造臉部表情的能力

  • will it affect how you perceive emotions in others?

    這又會不會影響你對情感的洞察力

  • - What? - No.

    啥?

  • - How could that--that--no.

    那怎麼可能

  • - I don't think so.

    我不認為

  • - And what are we saying by raising an eyebrow?

    那挑眉又代表什麼意思?

  • Do you know?

    你知道嗎?

  • [electronic music]

    為什麼這樣會看起來不高興?

  • ♪ ♪

    那為什麼這樣又看起來很開心?

  • Why does doing this make me look angry?

    這些表情到底從哪來的?

  • And why does doing this make me look so happy?

    當我們講到人與人之間的互動關係

  • Where does all this stuff come from?

    會很直覺認為語言是最主要的工具

  • When it comes to interpersonal communication,

    然而 我們臉上幾乎是沒有什麼毛髮

  • it's easy to think that speech dominates,

    這在哺乳動物裡面算是很獨特的

  • but yet, we have hairless faces.

    我們很容易看見彼此表情

  • That's very unique among mammals

    臉部表情可以說是人類的共通語言

  • that are easy to see expressions on.

    微笑不管在哪都是微笑

  • Facial expressions are shared across humanity.

    我們的臉部似乎特別適合用來做溝通

  • A smile is a smile in any language.

    在還沒有發展出語言之前

  • Our faces seem uniquely adapted for communication.

    靠臉部表情溝通

  • Before we developed language, facial expressions

    可能跟吶喊或低吼同等重要

  • may have been just as vital in communication

    而時至今日我們還在用這種方式

  • as shouts and grunts.

    但是臉部表情的特點在於

  • And we, of course, still use them today.

    並不只是你在觀察別人的表情

  • But when it comes to facial expressions,

    或對方在觀察你的表情

  • it's not just about seeing other people's expressions

    而是你也能看見自己的表情

  • and having them see yours.

    由於我們的眼睛是陷入臉部的

  • It's also about seeing your own.

    這讓我們能夠看見

  • And the fact that our eyes are deep-set

    自己正在做的表情

  • allows us to see our own facial expressions

    當你微笑的時候

  • as we're making them.

    你能看見兩頰微微隆起

  • If you smile, you can see

    當你皺眉時

  • your own cheeks rise slightly.

    它們會遮蔽你上方的視線

  • And if you furrow your brow,

    這些現象能及時回饋

  • it encroaches on the top of your vision.

    你臉部變化的程度

  • These things give you instant feedback

    並且馬上告訴你 你正在用怎樣的表情

  • on the degree to which you are altering your face

    面對周遭的事物

  • and tell you instantly what sort of expression

    不需要鏡子

  • you are putting out into the world.

    關於臉部表情 最常被問到的問題是

  • No mirror required.

    「哪一個先?」

  • ♪ ♪

    「是情緒還是臉部表情?」

  • Some of the most interesting experiments

    研究指出 如果你咬著鉛筆一整天

  • on facial expressions have asked, "What comes first?

    你那天會過得比較開心

  • The emotion or the facial expression?"

    為什麼?

  • Studies have found that if you hold a pencil

    因為兩唇微開 咬著鉛筆

  • between your teeth all day, you will have a better day.

    就好比在微笑

  • Why? Well, because holding a pencil

    他們用的肌肉群差不多

  • between your teeth without your lips touching

    看著

  • is like smiling.

    我不知道...

  • It uses pretty much the same muscles.

    我不知道自己在笑 但我有

  • Watch.

    相反的 噘嘴含著鉛筆

  • [muffled] I don't know--

    就像皺眉頭

  • I don't know I'm smiling, but I am.

    而研究指出 如果人這麼做

  • Conversely, pursing your lips around the pencil

    當天會過得比較糟

  • is like frowning.

    那麼 我們要來付諸實驗

  • And studies have found that if someone does that,

    證明臉部肌肉的改變

  • they will actually report having a less good day.

    是否能影響你的感受

  • Well, we're gonna put that to the test

    有關生理影響心情的研究

  • and find out if the facial contortions you make

    可追溯到 1800 年代

  • can subconsciously affect how you feel.

    最早的研究是由 達爾文

  • Studies on how physiology affects mood

    和法國神經學家杜鄉 開始的

  • go as far back as the 1800s,

    這個實驗一直到現在都還在進行

  • with early research carried out by Charles Darwin

    用不同的方式來製造微笑和皺眉

  • and French neurologist Duchenne de Boulogne.

    但有關臉部表情是否會影響心情

  • This work has continued into present day

    常會出現不一致的研究結果

  • using various techniques to create smiles and frowns.

    因此我們想要試試看

  • But studies have been inconsistent

    能不能找出兩者之間的關聯性

  • as to whether facial expressions

    實驗一:微笑與皺眉

  • can influence emotions, so we wanted to see

  • if we could demonstrate a correlation between the two.

    請進 克里斯,我是麥克

  • ♪ ♪

    你好 我是麥克

  • Hi. - Hi.

    我們招募了 20 個自願者

  • - Come on in, guys. Chris, my name is Michael.

    他們以為他們參加的是關於過敏的研究

  • Nice to meet you. My name is Michael.

    今天我們要測試一種新的狗飼料

  • We've recruited 20 volunteers

    這種飼料似乎能減少狗兒 所製造的過敏原數量

  • who think they're taking part in an allergy study.

    因此對狗有過敏的人

  • Today we are testing a new kind of dog food,

    或許在狗狗旁邊能自在一點

  • and it actually seems to help dogs produce fewer allergens,

    我們要用這些過敏原竹棒

  • so people who are allergic to dogs

    這些竹棒的用途 是要收集唾液

  • might be more comfortable around them.

    以便觀測你們身體

  • And we're going to be using these allergen sticks.

    對空氣中可能存在的過敏原有何反應

  • Now, the purpose of this stick is to collect saliva

    將它放在牙齒之間 像這樣,可以嗎?

  • to check the way your body reacts

    半數的受測者 會不自覺的

  • to possible allergens in the air.

    被我引導出微笑

  • Put it between your teeth like that, okay?

    相當簡單

  • - Mm-hmm. - Okay.

    另外一半 會不知情的被引導

  • - Half of our participants will be unknowingly forced

    要用他們皺眉的肌肉

  • into a smile.

    看喔 我牙齒閉著

  • Yeah, very simple. - Uh-huh.

    然後

  • - The other half will unwittingly be forced

    可以嗎?

  • to use their frown muscles.

    我們將會給皺眉組

  • Watch. My teeth are together,

    和微笑組 兩個一樣的工作

  • and then--hmm.

    去吧 待會見

  • Got it? both: Mm-hmm.

    被迫皺眉的人

  • - We're gonna give the frowners

    對工作滿意度的評分 是否會比被迫微笑的人低

  • and the smilers the same two tasks.

    請進

  • Go ahead, and I'll see you guys soon.

    為了測試他們的快樂程度

  • Will the people who were forced to frown

    我們的演員,特蘭 給了受測者一個大家都喜愛的任務

  • rank each task lower than those made to smile?

    趕小狗

  • - Come on in.

    一大堆的小狗

  • - To test their levels of happiness,

    由微笑組開始

  • our actor, Trin, gave our subjects a task

    牠們全都掛著名牌

  • everybody loves: puppy herding

    你的工作是要將牠們

  • with lots and lots of puppies.

    依照字母順序排成一列 等你將牠們排好之後

  • First up are our smilers.

    我會幫你照一張相

  • - They're all wearing little tags.

    你有三分鐘的時間完成任務

  • - Mm-hmm. - So your job is to line them up

    現在開始計時

  • in alphabetical order. Once you got 'em all lined up,

    確認牠們都依照字母排好順序

  • I'll snap a photo of you. - Okay.

    我找到 "F" 了

  • - And you got three minutes to do it.

    法蘭克,待在那邊

  • Starting now. - Hello. I know.

    他們在幫狗取名

  • - Make sure they're in alphabetical order.

    你是什麼字母?原來是 "C"

  • - They're naming the dogs.

    嘿,小乖乖

  • - She's having fun.

    她樂在其中

  • - I just got the--oh! Don't go away.

    找到 C

  • - [laughs]

    這兩隻交換

  • - Swap those two.

    你這個搗蛋鬼

  • - You got one minute left.

    很好,非常好

  • - This looks like fun,

    剩下一分鐘

  • but are they having even more fun

    我應該成功了

  • because they're being forced to smile?

    這看起來很好玩

  • - All right, get ready for the photo.

    但他們會不會因為被迫微笑

  • [camera shutter clicks]

    而覺得更好玩呢?

  • - Our smilers are laughing

    好了 準備拍照

  • and goofing around. - Fantastic.

    - 我們的微笑組都是

  • - Now, let's see how our frowners react

    邊笑邊玩耍 - 很棒

  • to this fun task.

    現在來看看皺眉組

  • - Three minutes. - [humming]

    對這個好玩的工作有何反應

  • - He's running away from you. - [groans]

    三分鐘

  • - The question is, will frowning emphasize

    牠跑走了

  • the parts that aren't fun-- in your mind, at least.

    重點在 皺眉是否會放大

  • [dogs barking]

    工作中不好玩的部分 至少心理上會不會

  • - Oh, we lost F.

    這有一隻愛亂動的

  • Got one little strangler right over here.

    如果皺眉組

  • - Ugh! - If the frowners seem

    對於趕小狗感到困擾

  • a bit frustrated herding puppies...

    他們對下一個工作 會有什麼感覺

  • - [mutters angrily] - How will they like

    請你們各拿一雙手套

  • their next task?

    你有辦法處理狗的糞便嗎?

  • - If you would each grab a pair of gloves.

    好的 我們還要檢查

  • Are you comfortable handling dog feces?

    有沒有蛋白質殘留

  • Okay. And we're also going to be

    在糞便當中

  • looking at whether there are any protein deposits

    她臉上寫著「你在開玩笑嗎?」

  • that have collected, um, in the fecal matter.

    那就開始將它散開在桌面上

  • - She's like, "Are you serious?"

    不開心

  • - So go ahead and spread it out on the table.

    你們要找的是 小又硬的排泄物

  • - [stifled retching] - Ooh.

    看不出來他們臉上

  • Not happy.

    能擠出任何笑容

  • - And what you're looking for are small, hard deposits.

    很好

  • - Not much indication that there's a smile

    謝謝,這樣就可以了

  • trying to come through.

    我們的皺眉組

  • - Hmm. - Okay, great.

    似乎不太喜歡這項任務

  • - [exhales] - Thank you, that'll do it.

    微笑組會有不一樣的反應嗎?

  • - Our frowners don't seem

    拿一雙手套

  • to be enjoying this assignment.

    將它抹開散開 可能會比較容易

  • Will the smilers have a different reaction?

    這個假設是 由於微笑的關係

  • - Grab a pair of gloves.

    他們會著重於

  • It may be easier to kind of smear it and spread it out.

    這個工作中好玩的部分

  • - The hypothesis is, that by smiling,

    有點像是肉丸子

  • they'll focus more on the funny aspects

    從他眼睛和眉毛 可以看得出他感到噁心

  • of what they're about to do.

    但是他的嘴巴沒辦法不微笑

  • - [laughs] Yeah. - Oh, my God.

    很好各位

  • - [laughs]

    非常謝謝 你們好了之後就跟我走

  • [groans] Oh.

    我帶你們去見 史蒂芬先生聽取報告

  • - There's disgust in his eyes and his brow,

    歡迎回來

  • but his mouth can't help but smile.

    現在稍微回想

  • - [chuckles] - Okay, great, guys.

    排列小狗還有幫牠們照相

  • Thank you so much. Then, when you're ready,

    你們的感受

  • just follow me and we'll do a debrief with Mr. Stevens.

    跟我說你們當時工作的時候

  • - Okay. - Sure.

    在想什麼還有感受如何

  • - Hey, welcome back.

    我覺得小狗相當可愛

  • Now, think about, um,

    我可以要一隻嗎?

  • organizing the puppies and taking a photo of them.

    你們允許嗎?

  • - Mmm. - And how you felt.

    小狗們其實很配合

  • Tell me what you were thinking

    我很容易就將牠們排好了

  • and feeling while you were doing that task.

    牠們超棒的

  • - I mean, the puppies are extremely cute.

    沒什麼壓力

  • - Mm-hmm. - Can I keep one?

    如果滿分是 10 分

  • Is it cool with you guys?

    1 分是完全糟透了

  • - The dogs actually cooperated pretty well.

    10 分是這輩子最棒的一天

  • - Mm-hmm? - I was able

    你會給小狗團體照任務幾分?

  • to put them in order.

    我會給9分

  • - They're amazing.

    - 10 分 - 8 分

  • - It wasn't stressful.

    - 8 分 - 我會給 8 分

  • - So on a scale of 1 to 10--

    - 給 9 分

  • where 1 is you cannot tolerate it

    平均是 8.5 分

  • and 10, best day of your life--

    這是從拍照任務中

  • how would you rank the puppy photo task?

    被迫微笑的 10 人小樣本中取得的結果

  • - I'm gonna say like a 9.

    現在來看看皺眉組 對同樣的工作給幾分

  • - 10. - 8.

    你當時在忙的時候 有什麼感受?

  • - 8. - I'm gonna go with an 8.

    老實說 有點挫折

  • - A 9.

    因為牠們一直到處亂跑

  • - That's an average of 8.5

    要同時排列和固定牠們

  • from our small sample of ten subjects

    讓他們在同一處不動還挺難的

  • who were forced to smile during the photo assignment.

    你會給拍團照任務打幾分?

  • Now let's see how the frowners rated the same task.

    4 分吧 大概 4 分

  • How did you feel while you were doing that?

    10 分啊 我超愛小狗的

  • - Um, a little frustrated, to be honest with you,

    我比較中立一點

  • 'cause they kept moving around.

    大約 5 分吧

  • - Well, it was difficult getting them to stay in place

    很多皺眉者回報說

  • and put them in order.

    對於這次經驗感到挫折

  • - How would you rank the photo taking task?

    相對得到平均 7.4 分

  • - Mmm, 4. - About 4.

    比微笑組少了 1 分多

  • - A 10. I love puppies.

    現在我們來談談 糞便檢查工作

  • - Still a 10? - Yeah, me too.

    - 很不愉快 - 超噁的

  • - I would go more on the middle ground,

    你會給便便任務打幾分

  • maybe like 5.

    1 分

  • - Many of the frowners reported

    - 絕對是 1 分 - 1 分

  • feeling frustrated with this experience,

    - 4 分 - 可以給 0 分嗎?

  • tallying an average score of 7.4,

    我們的皺眉組

  • more than a point lower than the smilers.

    得到超低平均分 1.9 分

  • Now let's talk about the poop checking job.

    問題是

  • - Very unpleasant. - It was disgusting.

    我們的微笑組

  • - How would you rank the poop checking task?

    會對扒糞

  • - 1--it was a 1. - A 1?

    感受較好嗎?

  • - It was for sure a 1. - 1.

    是不會太難受啦

  • - A 4. - Is a zero possible?

    是有點意料之外 但並沒有讓我感到太困擾

  • - Our frowning subjects

    我是沒有感到太噁心

  • averaged a low score of 1.9.

    反正就閉氣

  • The question is,

    很多微笑者 對這個不討喜的任務回報是

  • did our smiling group feel

    沒什麼大不了 或是很好笑

  • any better about digging

    我會給 5 分

  • through poo?

    因為這並不開心也不討厭

  • - It wasn't too uncomfortable.

    - 5 分囉 - 4 分接近 5 分

  • - It was sort of unexpected, but it wasn't like it bothered me.

    5 分吧

  • - I wasn't, like, disgusted like, "Ew! This is disgusting!"

    - 5 分,中間值

  • I just kind of held my breath.

    微笑組的平均分數

  • - Many of our smilers reported this unpleasant task

    是 4.3 分

  • as being no big deal or actually funny.

    微笑組給過濾便便的分數

  • - I'd say a 5 because it wasn't--

    比皺眉組多了 2.5 分

  • neither here nor there for me.

    祝你順心愉快 - 祝你玩便便愉快

  • - It was a 5. - A high 4.

    我會的

  • - 5, I guess. - A 5? Okay.

    我一向都是

  • - 5, right in the middle.

    我們的實驗發現 那些微笑的人

  • - The average score

    工作比較愉快 而那些皺眉的人

  • for the smiling group

    就比較不愉快