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  • Take a moment to read the following.

    花幾秒鐘看一下這篇文章

  • How was that?

    你覺得如何?

  • Frustrating?

    很挫折?

  • Slow?

    看很慢?

  • What were those sentences about?

    這些句子在講什麼?

  • They're actually a simulation

    其實這是一個模擬

  • of the experience of dyslexia,

    失讀症的體驗

  • designed to make you decode each word.

    你得解碼每個單字

  • Those with dyslexia experience that laborious pace

    失讀症患者每次看東西時

  • every time they read.

    都是這麼累

  • When most people think of dyslexia,

    大多數人想到失讀症

  • they think of seeing letters and words backwards,

    就認為失讀症患者會把字母看相反

  • like seeing "b" as "d" and vice versa,

    像是b看成d等等

  • or they might think people with dyslexia

    或是他們覺得失讀症患者會把單字看反

  • see "saw" as "was".

    像是把saw看成was

  • The truth is people with dyslexia

    事實上,失讀症患者

  • see things the same way as everyone else.

    看到的事物就和大家一樣

  • Dyslexia is caused by a phonological processing problem,

    失讀症是處理音韻所造成的問題

  • meaning people affected by it

    也就是說失讀症的人

  • have trouble not with seeing language

    看文字並沒有問題

  • but with manipulating it.

    問題出在該怎麼處理

  • For example, if you heard the word cat

    舉例來說,你聽到貓這個字

  • and then someone asked you, "Remove the 'c',"

    有人和你說,把ㄇ這個音拿掉

  • what word would you have left?

    那會剩下什麼音?

  • At.

  • This can be difficult for those with dyslexia.

    失讀症患者對此就有困難

  • Given a word in isolation,

    你單獨給失讀症患者一個詞

  • like fantastic,

    譬如"絕妙的"(fantastic)

  • students with dyslexia need to break the word

    失讀症患者得把這個字拆開

  • into parts to read it:

    才看得懂

  • fan,

    絕(fan)

  • tas,

    妙(tas)

  • tic.

    的(tic)

  • Time spent decoding makes it hard

    花這些時間去解讀

  • to keep up with peers

    讓他們很難跟上進度

  • and gain sufficient comprehension.

    以及充分了解這個詞

  • Spelling words phonetically,

    從發音部分去拼字

  • like s-t-i-k

    像是把ㄍㄣ

  • for stick

    當成棍

  • and f-r-e-n-s

    把皮友

  • for friends

    當成朋友

  • is also common.

    這些問題都很常見

  • These difficulties are more widespread and varied

    這些問題比一般人想像中的

  • than commonly imagined.

    還要廣泛以及不同

  • Dyslexia affects up to one in five people.

    每五個人就有一個人得到失讀症

  • It occurs on a continuum.

    失讀症有多種變因

  • One person might have mild dyslexia

    一個人患有輕微失讀症

  • while the next person has a profound case of it.

    下一個人就會比較嚴重

  • Dyslexia also runs in families.

    失讀症也會遺傳

  • It's common to see one family member

    常常看到一個家庭成員

  • who has trouble spelling

    在拼音方面有困難

  • while another family member

    而另一位家庭成員

  • has severe difficulty decoding even one syllable words,

    連拆解一個詞都非常吃力

  • like catch.

    像是「抓」這個字

  • The continuum and distribution of dyslexia

    失讀症的變因以及遺傳性

  • suggests a broader principle to bear in mind

    給了我們一個要謹記在心的原則

  • as we look at how the brains of those with dyslexia

    當我們看著失讀症患者的大腦

  • process language.

    在處理語言的時候

  • Neurodiversity is the idea

    就是神經多樣性

  • that because all our brains show differences

    我們的大腦無論在結構或是運作上

  • in structure and function,

    都會有些不同

  • we shouldn't be so quick to label

    我們不該一看到別人與我們不同

  • every deviation from "the norm"

    就把他們貼上標籤

  • as a pathological disorder

    像是病態失調

  • or dismiss people living with these variations

    或是趕走有這些病因的人

  • as "defective."

    稱他們為有缺陷的

  • People with neurobiological variations like dyslexia,

    神經生理異變的人像是失讀症患者

  • including such creative and inventive individuals

    包含一些具有創意以及創造力的人

  • as Picasso,

    像是畢卡索

  • Muhammad Ali,

    穆罕默德·阿里

  • Whoopi Goldberg,

    琥碧·戈柏

  • Steven Spielberg,

    史蒂芬·史匹柏

  • and Cher,

    以及雪兒

  • clearly have every capacity

    這些人很明顯都各有能力

  • to be brilliant and successful in life.

    把他們的人生活得光彩成功

  • So, here's the special way

    這個方法很特別

  • the brains of those with dyslexia work.

    這些人的大腦與失讀症合作

  • The brain is divided into two hemispheres.

    大腦可以分為兩個半球

  • The left hemisphere is generally in charge of language

    左半球基本上負責語言

  • and, ultimately, reading,

    以及閱讀這部分

  • while the right typically handles spatial activities.

    右半球就負責處理空間性的活動

  • fMRI studies have found

    功能性磁振造影研究發現

  • that the brains of those with dyslexia

    失讀症患者的大腦

  • rely more on the right hemisphere and frontal lobe

    較依賴右半球以及前額葉

  • than the brains of those without it.

    和一般人相比之下

  • This means, when they read a word,

    換言之,當他們看到一個字

  • it takes a longer trip through their brain

    他們的大腦需要花比較長的時間

  • and can get delayed in the frontal lobe.

    前額葉也會造成速度較慢

  • Because of this neurobiological glitch,

    因為生理神經有點小問題

  • they read with more difficulty.

    他們閱讀會比較困難

  • But those with dyslexia

    但是患有失讀症的人

  • can physically change their brain

    可以改變他們的大腦

  • and improve their reading

    改善他們的閱讀

  • with an intensive, multi-sensory intervention

    透過密集,且多種感官啟發

  • that breaks the language down

    將語言拆解成小單為

  • and teaches the reader to decode

    教失讀症患者去解碼

  • based on syllable types and spelling rules.

    根據音節的類型以及拼音規則

  • The brains of those with dyslexia

    失讀症患者的大腦

  • begin using the left hemisphere

    開始使用左半球

  • more efficiently while reading,

    在閱讀時,更有效率地使用

  • and their reading improves.

    他們的閱讀能力也改善了

  • The intervention works

    多重感官啟發

  • because it locates dyslexia appropriately

    因為它將失讀症確切地

  • as a functional variation in the brain,

    定位為大腦中的功能差異

  • which, naturally, shows all sorts of variations

    基本上,各種類型的差異

  • from one person to another.

    每個人都有

  • Neurodiversity emphasizes this spectrum

    神經多樣性強調的是

  • of brain function in all humans

    所有人類中,大腦的運作範圍

  • and suggests that to better understand the perspectives

    以及讓我們更了解

  • of those around us,

    周遭的人的思考方式

  • we should try to not only see the world through their eyes

    我們不該只是從他們的眼睛去看這世界

  • but understand it through their brains.

    而是從他們的大腦去了解世界

Take a moment to read the following.

花幾秒鐘看一下這篇文章

字幕與單字
已審核 字幕已審核

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 患者 大腦 半球 閱讀 神經

【TED-Ed】何謂閱讀障礙? (What is dyslexia? - Kelli Sandman-Hurley)

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    阿多賓 發佈於 2014 年 03 月 22 日
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