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  • What is our imagery of cities?

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Tammy Yuting Chiang

  • When we imagine cities,

    我們想像中的城市是什麼樣子?

  • we often imagine it to be something like this.

    當我們想到「城市」時,

  • But what if what you're looking at is just half a picture,

    我們通常會有這種聯想。

  • but there is a city within the city.

    但,如果各位看到的並不是全貌,

  • This part of the city is often seen as slums,

    事實上還有「城中之城」呢?

  • squatters, informal,

    城市中的這個部分 通常被視為貧民窟、

  • and people living here are called illegal, informal,

    非法住屋、非正式社區,

  • criminals, beneficiaries, supplicants, etc.

    住在這裡的人,通常 被視為非法、非正式,

  • But in reality,

    罪犯、受惠者、乞討者等等。

  • these are poor people with no choices.

    但,在現實中,

  • Poverty is a vicious cycle.

    他們是沒有選擇權的窮人。

  • If born poor, it can take three or more generations

    貧窮是個惡性循環。

  • to escape one.

    如果出生就貧窮,可能要花 三個以上的世代才能擺脫。

  • Many are forced in this cycle without choices,

    許多人被迫待在這個 循環中,別無選擇,

  • to live on pavements,

    住在人行道上、

  • along train tracks,

    火車軌道邊、

  • in dumping grounds,

    垃圾場裡、

  • along rivers,

    河邊、

  • swamps and many such unlivable spaces,

    沼澤,以及許多這類 不宜居住的空間,

  • without clean water, toilets or housing.

    沒有乾淨用水、廁所或住屋。

  • But these places are not unfamiliar to me,

    但這些地方對我來說並不陌生,

  • because since the age of six, I accompanied my father, a doctor,

    因為我從六歲開始就 陪著身為醫生的爸爸

  • who treated patients in the slums of Bombay.

    在孟買的貧民窟治療病人。

  • Growing up, I would help him carry his bag of medicines

    成長過程中,我下課後都會去 幫他背裝滿藥品的袋子——

  • after school lessons --

    我很愛這麼做。

  • I loved doing that.

    我想要為這些地方做點什麼,

  • Wanting to do something about these habitats,

    我決定成為建築師。

  • I decided to become an architect.

    但,我很早就了解到

  • But quite early on, I realized

    建築之美只屬於有錢人的世界。

  • that the beauty of architecture was only for the rich.

    所以我決定去做都市規劃,

  • So I decided to do urban planning

    加入一個印度非政府組織, 和都市窮人合作,

  • and joined an NGO in India that works with the urban poor

    這些窮人組成自發性 團體爭取基本服務,

  • who organize themselves to access basic services,

    比如用水、衛生、住屋, 讓窮人能在城市中生活。

  • such as water, sanitation and housing, for the poor living in cities.

    我的人生中,花了十年時間

  • Now I spent 10 years of my life in professional education, in learning,

    在專業教育與學習上,

  • and then five years in unlearning it.

    接著再花五年把學過的都忘掉。

  • Because I realized

    因為我了解到,

  • that all my training in architecture, design and planning

    我受過的所有建築、 設計、規劃相關訓練

  • failed ground realities.

    跟現實非常脫節。

  • And this is where I learned the power of choice.

    此時,我學到了選擇的力量。

  • I unlearned many things,

    我拋開許多過去所學,

  • but there are two myths about the poor

    但有兩個關於窮人的迷思

  • that I would like to share that we live with.

    與我們息息相關, 我想要跟大家分享。

  • The first myth is a perception

    第一個迷思是在人們的理解中,

  • that migration of poor people into cities is a problem.

    窮人移入城市是一種問題。

  • Is migration really a choice?

    遷移真的是一個選擇嗎?

  • My mentor Sheela Patel

    我的恩師希拉帕特爾

  • asked to those who think of this as a problem,

    問過那些認為窮人遷移 是個問題的人,

  • "Go ask your grandfather where he came from," she says.

    她說:「去問問你的祖父, 他從哪裡來。」

  • So what do poor people do when they migrate in cities?

    當窮人遷入城市時, 他們會做什麼?

  • Let me share an example.

    讓我舉個例子。

  • This is the Mumbai International Airport.

    這是孟買國際機場。

  • All that you see in blue are large informal settlements around it.

    各位看到藍色的區域是 它周圍的非正式社區。

  • Close to 75,000 people live here.

    大約有七萬五千個人住在這裡。

  • So who are these people that work silently in hotels, restaurants,

    所以,這些人是誰?

  • as laborers, babysitters, house helps

    他們默默在飯店、餐廳工作,

  • and countless other jobs

    擔任勞工、褓姆、家庭幫傭,

  • that we need for cities to function without a glitch?

    及無數其他工作,

  • And where do they live?

    都是使城市能順利運作 不可或缺的工作。

  • In most cities, they live in slums.

    他們住在哪裡?

  • So let us think again.

    在大部分的城市裡, 他們都住在貧民區。

  • Do we want poor people to stop migrating in our cities?

    讓我們再想一次。

  • What if they had a choice of not to?

    我們真的希望窮人別再 遷入我們的城市嗎?

  • The second myth is my personal experience.

    如果他們能選擇不要遷入呢?

  • It's this attitude that we professionals know better.

    第二個迷思是我的個人經驗。

  • We professionals love to make choices for others,

    也就是我們專業人士 懂比較多的這種態度。

  • especially for the poor.

    我們喜歡為他人做選擇,

  • Let me share an experience.

    特別是為窮人。

  • In a workshop that looked at designing 250 new houses for poor families

    讓我分享一段經歷。

  • from a slum nearby,

    有一個研討會計劃設計 兩百五十間新住屋

  • there were different building materials that were presented,

    給住在附近貧民區的貧困家庭。

  • ranging from papier-mâché, cardboard, honeycomb, etc.,

    研討會上提出不同的建材,

  • simply because they were affordable.

    從混凝紙漿、紙板、蜂巢等都有,

  • But there was this one idea that was of shipping containers.

    只因為這些是負擔得起的建材。

  • Now we immediately approved of it,

    但有一個點子,是運輸用的貨櫃。

  • because we thought it was sustainable, scalable, affordable.

    我們馬上同意用它,

  • But during this presentation,

    因為我們認為它比較耐用、 可擴展、負擔得起。

  • a lady from the slum humbly spoke up.

    但,在這次簡報中,

  • And she asked the presenter,

    有位來自貧民區的 女士謙虛地發聲。

  • "Would you choose to live in it?"

    她問簡報的講者:

  • (Laughter)

    「你會選擇住在這裡面嗎?」

  • "If not, then why did you think we would?"

    (笑聲)

  • Now this was a personal unlearning moment for me,

    「如果你不會,那你 為什麼認為我們會?」

  • where I realized that poverty only changes affordability --

    在這一刻,我學到必須 拋開過去所學,

  • it does not change aspirations.

    我了解到,貧窮只影響了 他們能負擔多少——

  • Now poor people have lived in temporary structures all their life.

    並沒有影響他們的抱負。

  • They go from wall to wall,

    窮人一生都住在暫時性建築中。

  • moving from bricks to tin.

    他們從一面牆換到另一面牆, 從磚塊屋搬到錫屋。

  • They move from building from bamboo,

    他們從竹子、防水布、 塑膠所搭建的建築

  • tarpaulin sheets, plastic, to cardboard, to tin,

    搬到紙板、錫做的建築,

  • to bricks and cement,

    再到磚屋、水泥屋,就像我們一樣。

  • just like the way we do.

    某種程度上,我們把我們的 選擇強加給他們。

  • So somewhere here, we were forcing our choices on them.

    我們應該強迫他們採納我們的選擇,

  • So should we force our choices on them,

    還是拓展出更多選擇給他們?

  • or should we broaden their choices?

    如果給予人們選擇的機會呢?

  • Now what if the opportunity to choose was given to people?

    這些女子住在一個孟買 當地社區的人行道上。

  • These are women who lived on the pavements of a neighborhood in Mumbai.

    她們經常遭到驅逐, 而她們的因應方式是

  • Now they faced constant evictions, and in response to it,

    組織一個女性互助組織, 叫做瑪西拉米蘭。

  • they organized a women's network called Mahila Milan.

    她們不只對抗掌權者的驅逐、

  • Not only did they fight against evictions with those in power,

    存錢、買地,

  • saved money and bought land,

    她們還設計並協助建造 她們自己的房子。

  • but they also designed and helped construct their own houses.

    這些女性都不識字, 她們怎麼辦到的?

  • Well, these were illiterate women, so how did they do that?

    她們用地墊和莎麗來做度量。

  • They used floor mats and saris to understand measurements.

    一件莎麗是四公尺長、一公尺半寬。

  • A sari is four meters in length and 1.5 meters in width.

    她們用這些日常物品 來展示房屋模型。

  • They used these simple day-to-day items to demonstrate house models.

    她們甚至做了三個選項供選擇,

  • And even they made three options to choose from

    並邀請她們的鄰居來參觀。

  • and invited all their fellow residents to come and have a look.

    (笑聲)

  • (Laughter)

    大家都喜歡這個有閣樓的選項,

  • And everybody loved this option that had a loft in it,

    只因為它有兩個特點。

  • simply because it did two things.

    第一,它能讓更大的 家庭睡在裡面。

  • One is that it accommodated larger families to sleep in.

    第二,它適合做家庭代工,

  • And two, it allowed home-based work,

    比如做手鐲、設計珠寶、

  • such as bangle-making, jewelry-designing,

    刺繡、包裝物品等等。

  • embroidery-stitching, packaging items, etc.

    他們也決定裡面不要有廁所,

  • Now they also decided to not have a toilet inside,

    但要把廁所設在外面的走廊上,

  • but instead have it outside in the corridors,

    因為這樣有更多空間,也比較便宜。

  • simply because it gave them more space and it was cheaper.

    專業人士絕對不會想到

  • Now, professionals could have never thought

    這些考量。

  • of something like that.

    在正式的設計中, 屋內一定要有廁所。

  • A formal design would have necessitated to have a toilet inside.

    這些都是比較小的例子——

  • Now these are smaller examples --

    讓我分享一些更大的情境:

  • let me share some larger context:

    八億八千一百萬人——

  • 881,000,000 people --

    約是目前世界人口的六分之一——

  • that's about one sixth of this world, as we talk here --

    住在貧民區及非正式的居住地。

  • are living in slums and informal settlements.

    幾乎南半球的每個城市中

  • Almost every city in the global south has large slums in the size of townships.

    都有跟小鎮一樣大的大型貧民區。

  • Kibera, in Nairobi,

    奈洛比有基貝拉,

  • Dharavi, in Mumbai,

    孟買有達拉維,

  • Khayelitsha in South Africa, just a few.

    南非有卡雅利沙, 這只是幾個例子。

  • Now initially, they were all on waste and abandoned lands

    一開始,它們都位在 垃圾場和廢棄土地上,

  • that cities were never interested in.

    都是城市不感興趣的地方。

  • As cities grew,

    隨著城市成長,

  • poor people started building on these lands

    窮人開始在這些土地上建設,

  • and brought value to this over time.

    漸漸地,這些土地有了價值。

  • And today, these lands have become real estate hot spots

    現今,這些土地變成 房地產的搶手地點,

  • that everybody wants a piece of.

    人人都想要分一杯羹。

  • So how do cities and those in power choose to deal with them?

    所以,城市和掌權者 選擇如何處理它們?

  • They demolish them and evict them

    他們採取拆除並驅逐居民,

  • and move them away from their cities and economies

    迫使他們搬離他們的城市和經濟,

  • in order to build a new infrastructure.

    只為了建造新的基礎建設。

  • They move them into vertical housing,

    他們把這些居民搬到垂直的住宅中,

  • which in reality looks like this.

    在現實中看起來是這樣的。

  • Now when built in high densities,

    如此高密度的建築

  • they lack natural light and ventilation,

    缺乏天然光且通風不佳,

  • and it often leads to unhealthy conditions.

    常會形成不健康的環境。

  • Now, on one hand,

    一方面,

  • poor people are not involved in the participation of design,

    窮人並沒有參與設計,

  • and there is poor quality of construction.

    且建造的品質很糟糕。

  • And on the other hand,

    另一方面,

  • they do not understand how to do maintenance,

    他們不知道如何維護,

  • you know, keeping bills, keeping records, forming societies --

    比如,保留帳單、保留記錄、 組織社群——

  • this is always difficult for them.

    這對他們來說一向很困難。

  • And being forced to move into this formal society,

    他們被迫搬到這種正式住宅,

  • they end up looking like this in a few years.

    幾年內,他們就會變成這樣。

  • Because formalization is not a product,

    因為正式化並不是一種 產物,是一種過程。

  • it's a process.

    對窮人來說,從非正式 到正式是一趟旅程。

  • Moving from informal to formal for poor people is a journey.

    要花時間接受和適應。

  • It takes time to accept and adapt.

    沒有選擇時,

  • And when that choice is not given,

    就會變成這樣,

  • it becomes like this,

    將來,這些地方恐怕 就會變成貧民窟。

  • which I'm afraid, in future, these would become the slums.

    如果我們不這麼做, 改成提供住屋給窮人,

  • Now instead of doing this,

    讓他們選擇成為我們城市的一部分,

  • what if we accommodated poor people

    協助他們開發居住地,

  • and gave them a choice to be a part of our cities

    提供他們基本建設, 就像這張照片?

  • and develop them where they are,

    想想這樣會如何: 如果城市和政府能合作,

  • giving them basic services, like in this picture?

    如果政府承認窮人,

  • Now what happens if cities and governments could work together,

    他們能夠一起做建設?

  • if governments acknowledge poor people,

    這是穆庫魯。

  • and they could build it together?

    它是奈洛比的大型非正式居住地。

  • This is Mukuru.

    它是非洲最大的居住地。

  • It's a large informal settlement in Nairobi.

    有三十萬人住在

  • It's one of the largest settlements in Africa.

    那片超過六百五十英畝的土地上。

  • It's home to 300,000 people

    它的規模可以比擬成

  • living over 650 acres of land.

    將匹茲堡的人口擠到 紐約中央公園裡面。

  • To help us understand that scale,

    那就是穆庫魯。

  • it's like squeezing the population of Pittsburgh

    讓大家看一下,

  • into the New York Central Park.

    這個就是當地住屋的狀況。

  • That's Mukuru.

    社區裡面看起來就像這樣。

  • So to give us a glimpse,

    簡單來說,在穆庫魯的 生活是什麼樣子?

  • this is the condition of housing.

    五百五十個人共用一個水龍頭,

  • And this is what it is in between them.

    要支付的費用是城市中 其他居民的九倍,

  • So what is life in Mukuru like, just talking briefly?

    只因為沒有水利基礎設施, 且水是用賣的。

  • Five hundred and fifty people use one single water tap

    許多人工作結束回來之後 卻發現自己的房子不見了,

  • and pay nine times more

    房子可能被堆土機清除,

  • than what anybody else in the city could pay,

    或是被燒毀。

  • simply because there is no water infrastructure

    因為厭倦了這種情況,

  • and water is sold.

    當地貧民窟居民的聯盟「蒙加諾」

  • Many come back from work to find out that their houses do not exist,

    決定不再坐視。

  • because they have either been bulldozed,

    在四年間,

  • or they have been burned down.

    他們組織了兩萬名居民

  • So, tired of this situation,

    來收集資料、繪製建設圖,

  • a local slum dwellers' federation called Muungano

    再通通結合起來。

  • decided to do something about it.

    計畫非常簡單——

  • In four years,

    他們只有四項要求。

  • they organized 20,000 residents to collect data,

    他們要乾淨用水、

  • map structures and put it together.

    廁所、像樣的道路,

  • And the plan was very simple --

    還有,最重要的,不要被驅逐。

  • they only needed four things.

    他們向奈洛比政府提出這個計畫。

  • They wanted clean water,

    史上頭一遭,

  • toilets, decent roads

    城市同意要進行。

  • and, most importantly, not to be evicted.

    奈洛比市、肯亞政府,

  • So they presented this with the government of Nairobi.

    宣佈穆庫魯為特別規劃區,

  • And for the first time in history ever,

    意即,該區人民可以提出 他們自己的計畫。

  • a city has agreed to do it.

    該區人民可以制定出 自己的標準和規則,

  • The city of Nairobi, the government of Kenya,

    因為適用於正式公民的標準

  • declared Mukuru to be a special planning area,

    並不適用於非正式的環境。

  • which means that people could come up with their own plan.

    用例子來說,那是什麼意思?

  • People could decide to come up with their own norms and standards,

    若這些是穆庫魯的道路, 各位可以看到,

  • because the standards that work for the formal citizens

    道路兩側都有房子。

  • do not work in informal settings.

    如果要讓城市巴士進入,

  • So what does that mean, to give us an instance?

    根據標準,

  • If these are roads in Mukuru,

    規劃者必須要設計很奢侈的 二十五公尺寬道路。

  • you can see that there are houses along both sides of the road.

    那就表示 25% 的建築 會被取代掉——

  • Now in order to bring in a city bus,

    很多人會失去家園。

  • as per the standards,

    所以我們換了個方法, 使用十二公尺寬的道路,

  • planners would have gone for a luxurious 25-meter-wide road.

    建築物仍保持完整,還能在

  • Now that would mean displacing [25] percent of the structures --

    不妥協掉太多建設的情況下 引進城市巴士。

  • that's a lot of people.

    讓我們來看另一個例子:社區廁所。

  • So instead of doing that, we came up with a 12-meter-wide road,

    在高密度的區域,

  • which had the structures intact and brought the city bus

    廁所沒有辦法設置隔間,

  • without compromising on much services.

    不能像我們的公共廁所那樣。

  • In another instance, let's talk about community toilets.

    所以我們考慮區分為 男性區和女性區。

  • You know, in high-density areas,

    但,試想這個情況。

  • where there is no scope for individual toilets,

    早上,去廁所的尖峰時段,

  • like the public toilets that we have here.

    人人都非常急著需要解放,

  • So we would go for a male section and a female section.

    如果排隊的隊伍有五十人,

  • But imagine this situation.

    且有一個孩子站在一個成人後面,

  • In the morning rush hours to the toilet,

    誰會贏?

  • when everybody is in intense pressure to relieve themselves,

    最後孩子就會蹲在外面上廁所。

  • and if you're standing in a queue of 50 people,

    那就是為什麼女性決定

  • and there is a child standing behind an adult,

    要有分開的蹲式區域給孩子專用。

  • who wins?

    誰會考量到這些?

  • Children end up squatting outside.

    這裡的想法是,當窮人能做選擇,

  • And that's why women decided

    他們會選得比較好。

  • to come up with a separate squatting area for children.

    他們能選擇對他們有用的。

  • Now, who could have thought of something like that?

    所以,選擇就是一切。

  • The idea here is that when poor people choose,

    而權力決定選擇。

  • they choose better.

    我們需要那些掌權的人——

  • They choose what works for them.

    政治人物、領導人、政府、

  • So choice is everything.

    建築師、規劃者、制度、研究者——

  • And power decides choice.

    以及我們日常生活中的所有人 都要能尊重不同的選擇。

  • And we need those in power --

    不要幫別人、幫窮人 選擇什麼是對的,

  • politicians, leaders, governments,

    我們應該認可並賦予 他們權力去做選擇。

  • architects, planners, institutions, researchers --

    這樣我們才能為未來

  • and all of us in our everyday lives to respect choices.

    建造出更好、更包容的城市,

  • Instead of choosing what is right for people, for the poor,

    完成城市的意象,

  • let's acknowledge and empower their choices.

    讓城市的建造立基在 居民的選擇上。

  • And that is how we can build

    謝謝。

  • better and inclusive cities for tomorrow,

    (掌聲)

  • completing the imagery of cities

  • built by the choices of its own people.