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  • Just a minute ago,

    就在一分鐘前

  • this oil helped make a delicious meal possible.

    這油幫助我們享用了一頓美食

  • But now, it's just some nasty goop.

    但現在,它只是一坨噁心的糊糊

  • What should we do with it?

    我們該怎麼處理它呢?

  • Well, the easiest thing would be

    嗯,最簡單的應該是

  • to pour it down the drain;

    把它倒進排水管裡

  • that makes it seem like it's gone,

    這樣看起來似乎就沒事了

  • but it's not really gone.

    但它並不是真的不見

  • Instead, it's collecting bits of food

    相反地,它把食物

  • and other random stuff,

    和其他隨機的東西集結在一塊兒

  • producing monstrous, greasy blockages

    產出了醜惡的、 油膩的堵塞物

  • that clog not only your own drain

    不只塞住了你自己的排水管

  • but entire sewage systems,

    還堵住了整個污水處理系統

  • causing flooding and pollution.

    造成水災和污染

  • Many places have laws for proper disposal of grease,

    很多地方設有妥善處置油脂的法規

  • but we can go one step further.

    但我們可以再進一步

  • Instead of just throwing it away safely,

    不僅僅只是 把它仍到其他安全的地方

  • we can turn it into something useful.

    我們其實可以把它變成有用的東西

  • And if you're wondering

    如果你想知道

  • what anyone could possibly want

    這一大坨噁心的廚餘烹飪油

  • with a bunch of disgusting, used cooking oil,

    可以變成什麼 人們想要的東西的話

  • the answer is: biodiesel.

    答案是:生物柴油

  • You've probably heard of diesel engines.

    你可能聽說過柴油引擎

  • They power farming and construction equipment,

    它們為農業和建築機具

  • trucks, buses, ships, trains, backup generators,

    卡車、 公車、 船舶、 火車、 備用發電機

  • and even some cars.

    甚至一些汽車提供電源

  • Most of the fuel that feeds these engines

    大部分供給這些引擎的燃料

  • is refined from petroleum,

    是從石油中提煉而成

  • which comes from long-dead dinosaurs

    它們來自於 死了很久的恐龍

  • and other ancient fossils.

    和其他古老的化石

  • But diesel fuel can also be derived from

    但柴油也來自於

  • more recently-dead organisms,

    最近死去的有機體

  • like plants and animals.

    比如動植物

  • And this type of fuel is what we call biodiesel.

    這種類型的燃料 就是我們所說的生物柴油

  • Biodiesel is a biodegradable energy source,

    生物柴油是可生物降解的能源

  • made from plant oils or animal fats,

    從植物油或動物脂肪提煉而成

  • that can usually be burned in regular diesel engines.

    通常可以在常規的 柴油引擎中燃燒

  • You guessed it,

    你猜對了

  • it's the 'bio' version of diesel.

    它是柴油的「生物」版本

  • It's cleaner than normal diesel,

    它比普通柴油乾淨

  • so there has been a push to generate it

    所以人們試圖 推動這種能源的使用

  • from crops like soybeans.

    從作物中提煉而成,比如大豆

  • Now, growing plants for fuel,

    現在,栽種作物,不為了食物

  • instead of food, comes with its own problems.

    卻作為燃料之用,已造成許多問題

  • But fortunately, we already have some oils and fats right here.

    但幸運的是,我們在這裡 已經有一些油和油脂了

  • Preparing your used cooking grease for recycling

    回收你所用過的烹飪油

  • is easy.

    是容易的

  • First, let it cool down to room temperature.

    第一,把它冷卻至室溫

  • Then, transfer it to a clean container.

    然後,將它放到乾淨的容器裡

  • You can use any old bottles you have lying around,

    你可以用身邊任何舊瓶子

  • like milk jugs,

    像牛奶罐

  • as long as they're completely empty,

    只要它們是空的即可

  • rinsed, and dried.

    用清水沖洗、烘乾

  • Use a funnel to avoid spills

    使用漏斗,以避免溢漏

  • and a sieve to filter out any small food particles.

    並用篩子過濾掉 任何小的食物顆粒

  • You can even add bacon grease

    你甚至可以添加培根油

  • and other animal fats

    和其他動物脂肪

  • or the excess oil from canned food,

    或罐頭食品裡多餘剩下的油

  • like tuna or sardines,

    像鮪魚或沙丁魚罐頭

  • just make sure it's really oil and not brine.

    確保它真的是油,不是鹵水

  • So, what happens now that your oil is safely contained?

    現在你的油已經安放在容器裡了 那麼,接下來該怎麼辦?

  • Well, many cities have recycling services

    嗯,許多城市都有回收服務

  • that will pick up large amounts of grease

    從餐廳和其他地方

  • from restaurants and other establishments.

    接受大量的油脂回收

  • But there are locations

    但也有的是透過回收站

  • where individuals can drop off their containers, as well.

    人們可以把回收油放在那兒

  • All of this grease will end up at a processing plant,

    所有這些油脂最終會來到加工廠

  • where it can be converted to useable biodiesel.

    在那裡,它可以轉換為可用的生物柴油

  • How does this conversion work?

    這種轉換是如何運作的?

  • Well, all these oils and fats you donated

    嗯,你捐出的所有這些油和油脂

  • are made up of triglycerides,

    都是由三酸甘油酯所組成的

  • a glycerol molecule connected to

    一個甘油分子連接到

  • three fatty acid chains.

    三個脂肪酸鏈

  • To convert fats to fuel,

    將脂肪轉換為燃料

  • they react with an alcohol,

    它們會與酒精反應

  • usually methanol or ethanol,

    通常使會產出長鏈酯和甘油的

  • which produces long-chain esters and glycerol.

    甲醇或乙醇

  • To compare, here are some molecules

    這裡有一些常規柴油燃料的分子

  • of regular diesel fuel.

    可進行比較

  • Now, here are the molecules we created

    現在,這裡是我們創造的分子

  • by breaking apart the triglycerides.

    透過拆分三酸甘油酯

  • Glycerol is the odd man out,

    甘油是那多出來的異類

  • so it's removed at the end of the process.

    因此它會在過程結束時被剔除

  • But look at these esters!

    但看看這些酯類 !

  • If you squint, their structures look pretty similar

    如果你定睛一看,它們的結構看起來

  • to those of the long-chain hydrocarbons in regular diesel.

    和那些普通柴油的長鏈烴類很相似

  • And diesel engines, with a few small modifications,

    柴油引擎,做幾個小修改

  • can also be made to squint

    也可以像普通柴油燃料一般

  • and burn these esters like regular diesel fuel.

    燃燒這些酯類

  • Et voila! Biodiesel.

    瞧!這就是生物柴油

  • Now, you might be wondering whether all this hassle

    現在,你可能想知道,是否所有這一切

  • over recycling used cooking oil

    對回收使用烹調油的麻煩事

  • is even worth it.

    是否值得

  • After all, how much energy can it possibly generate?

    到底它可以產生多少能量?

  • Well, if all the grease that New Yorkers throw away in one day

    好吧,如果把所有在紐約 一天當中所扔掉的油脂

  • were converted to jet fuel,

    都轉換為飛航燃料

  • it would be enough to power several hundred flights

    它足足可以供給幾百架

  • from New York to Los Angeles.

    從紐約到洛杉磯的用油

  • And let's not forget that using waste oil

    不要忘了我們所用的是廢油

  • instead of burning more fossil fuels

    而不是燃燒更多

  • will limit our negative effects on the environment.

    會加重對環境負面影響的化石燃料

  • Recycling used cooking grease

    回收食用油

  • turns goop into good.

    將黏糊物轉化為好產品

  • By contributing a little bit,

    個人和企業都可以

  • individuals and businesses can help create

    以舉手之勞,創造出

  • an alternative, stable source of diesel oil,

    替代的穩定油源

  • while protecting the environment

    同時保護環境

  • and keeping our cities cleaner.

    並使我們的城市更乾淨

  • And that's pretty slick.

    這才是聰明的作法

Just a minute ago,

就在一分鐘前

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B1 中級 中文 美國腔 TED-Ed 燃料 回收 生物 引擎 脂肪

【TED-Ed】廢油回收利用 - 生質柴油 (Biodiesel: The afterlife of oil - Natascia Radice)

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    阿多賓 發佈於 2014 年 06 月 24 日
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