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  • Almost 30 years ago,

    譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Val Zhang

  • my country was facing the need to rebuild everything from scratch.

    近三十年前,

  • After years of Soviet occupation,

    我的國家面臨得 從零開始重建一切。

  • Estonia regained its independence, but we were left with nothing.

    在被蘇聯併吞多年之後,

  • No infrastructure, no administration, no legal code.

    愛沙尼亞再次獨立, 但我們什麼都不剩。

  • Organizational chaos.

    沒有基礎建設、政府或法典。

  • Out of necessity,

    組織完全混亂。

  • the state leaders back then had to make some daring choices.

    出於需求,當時的國家領導人

  • The ones that our country could afford.

    必須做出一些大膽的選擇。

  • There was a lot of experimentation and uncertainty

    我們國家負擔得起的選擇。

  • but also a bit of luck involved,

    那時有許多實驗和不確定性,

  • particularly in the fact that we could count on a number

    但也有點運氣,

  • of brilliant visionaries,

    特別是我們能夠仰賴一些

  • cryptographers and engineers.

    出色且有遠見的人、密碼專家,

  • I was just a kid back then.

    以及工程師。

  • Today, we are called the most digital society on earth.

    那時我還小。

  • I'm from Estonia,

    如今,我們被稱為 世上最數位化的社會。

  • and we've been declaring taxes online since 2001.

    我來自愛沙尼亞,

  • We have been using digital identity and signature since 2002.

    從 2001 年起我們就在線上報稅。

  • We've been voting online since 2005.

    2002 年起我們就開始 用數位身分和簽章。

  • And for today, pretty much the whole range of the public services

    2005 年起我們就在線上投票。

  • that you can imagine:

    現今,大概你能想出的

  • education, police, justice, starting a company,

    各種公眾服務:

  • applying for benefits, looking at your health record

    教育、警政、司法、創立公司、

  • or challenging a parking ticket --

    申請福利、查看你的健康記錄,

  • that's everything that is done online.

    或者申訴停車罰單,

  • In fact, it's much easier to tell you

    一切都透過線上完成。

  • what are the three things we cannot yet do online.

    事實上,比較容易的是告訴各位

  • We have to show up to pick up our ID documents,

    有哪三件事我們 還無法在線上做到。

  • get married or divorced,

    我們必須親自領取的身分文件、

  • or sell real estate.

    結婚或離婚,

  • That's pretty much it.

    或是買賣房地產。

  • So, that's why don't freak out

    大致上就這樣。

  • when I tell you that every year

    這就是為什麼大家不用太驚訝,

  • I can't wait to start doing my tax declaration.

    聽到我說,每年我都

  • (Laughter)

    等不及要開始報稅了。

  • Because all I have to do

    (笑聲)

  • is sit on my couch with a mobile phone,

    因為我需要做的就只有

  • swipe a few pages with prefilled data on income and deductions

    坐在沙發上,拿著手機,

  • and hit submit.

    滑過幾個頁面,其中收入 和扣除額的資料都預填好了,

  • After three minutes,

    按下「送出」即可。

  • I'm looking at the tax return amount.

    三分鐘之後,

  • It actually feels like a quite rewarding experience.

    我就可以看到退稅金額。

  • No tax advisors,

    這其實像是個很值得的體驗。

  • no collecting receipts,

    沒有稅務諮詢員,

  • no doing the math.

    不用收集收據,

  • And have I mentioned that I have not visited a state office

    不用計算。

  • for almost seven years?

    我剛有沒有提到,近七年來

  • Indeed, one of the features of the modern life

    我未曾踏入任何一間政府機關?

  • that has no reason to exist anymore,

    的確,現代生活的其中一項特色,

  • considering technological possibilities of today,

    已經沒有存在的理由,

  • is the labyrinth of bureaucracy.

    考量到現今的科技,

  • We've almost got rid of it completely in Estonia,

    那就是官僚體系的繁雜。

  • in an effort coordinated by the government that has also digitized itself.

    在愛沙尼亞,我們幾乎 完全擺脫了這情況,

  • For instance, cabinet of ministers' work in e-Cabinet is absolutely paperless.

    本身就是數位化的政府 出手協調完成了這件事。

  • The central idea behind this development

    比如,內閣部長們 絕對是數位無紙化作業。

  • is transformation of the state role

    這種發展背後的中心思想

  • and digitalization of trust.

    是轉換國家的角色,

  • Think about it.

    並將信任數位化。

  • In most countries, people don't trust their governments.

    想想看。

  • And the governments don't trust them back.

    在大部分的國家裡, 人民不相信他們的政府。

  • And all the complicated paper-based formal procedures

    相對的,政府也不相信人民。

  • are supposed to solve that problem.

    所有複雜的紙本正式流程

  • Except that they don't.

    為的就是要解決這個問題。

  • They just make life more complicated.

    只是問題並沒有解決。

  • I believe Estonian experience is showing that technology can be the remedy

    這些流程只讓生活變得更複雜。

  • for getting the trust back,

    我相信,愛沙尼亞的經驗說明了

  • while creating an efficient,

    科技可以是贏回彼此信任的解藥,

  • user-centric service delivery system

    同時創造出一個有效率、

  • that actively responds to citizens' needs.

    以使用者為中心的服務實作系統,

  • We did not do it by digitizing bureaucracy as it is.

    主動回應公民的需求。

  • But by rather agreeing on a few strong, common principles,

    我們不是將官僚體制依樣數位化。

  • redesigning rules and procedures,

    而是協調出幾條 不可動搖的基本原則,

  • getting rid of unnecessary data collection

    重新設計規則和流程,

  • and task duplication,

    捨掉不必要的資料收集

  • and becoming open and transparent.

    和重複作業,

  • Let me give you a glimpse

    變成開放且透明的。

  • into some of the key e-Estonia design principles today.

    讓我帶大家一瞥

  • First, it is essential to guarantee privacy and confidentiality

    現今設計「e 愛沙尼亞」時 採用的一些重要原則。

  • of data and information.

    首先,資料與資訊的隱私和保密性

  • This is achieved through a strong digital identity

    是至關重要的。

  • that is issued by the state

    藉由國家所發行的

  • and compatible with everything.

    完善的數位身分,

  • In fact, every Estonian has one.

    並與一切相容。

  • The identity is doubled with a strong digital signature

    事實上,每位國民都擁有數位身分證。

  • that is accepted, used and legally binding

    這個證件的第二重保障 是完善的數位簽章,

  • both in Estonia and the European Union.

    在愛沙尼亞和歐盟都被接受、

  • When the system can properly and securely identify who is using it,

    都可使用,且都具有法律效力。

  • after logging in, it will provide access to the personal data of the citizen

    當公民登入系統後,若系統能夠妥善、

  • and all the public services within one tool,

    安全地辨視出使用者身分, 就會讓該市民取得個人資料

  • and allow to authorize anything by signing digitally.

    以及所有公共服務, 只要用單一工具即可,

  • A second principle, and one of the most transformative,

    還能夠透過數位簽署 來進行各種授權。

  • is called "Once only."

    第二條原則,也是 最具顛覆性的原則之一,

  • It means that the state cannot ask for the same data

    叫做「僅一次」。

  • more than once,

    意思就是,國家不能

  • nor can store it in more than one place.

    索取同樣的資料一次以上,

  • For instance,

    也不能將資料儲存在 一個以上的地方。

  • if you've already provided your birth or marital certificate

    比如,

  • to the population registry,

    如果你已經提供過 出生或結婚證明

  • this is the only place where this data is going to be held.

    給登記戶籍的機關,

  • And no other institution will be ever asking for it again.

    這些資料就只會儲存在這裡。

  • Once only is a very powerful rule,

    其他機關永遠不能 再跟你要這些資料。

  • as it defines the whole structure of the data collection in a country,

    「僅一次」是非常強大的規則,

  • what information is collected

    因為它定義了國家的 整體資料結構,

  • and who is responsible for maintaining it,

    要收集哪些資訊、

  • making sure we avoid centralization of data,

    誰要負責維護這些資料,

  • duplication of data,

    確保我們能避免資料集中化、

  • and guarantee that it's actually up to date.

    資料重複,

  • This distributed approach also avoids the problem

    並保證資料是最新的。

  • of the single point of failure.

    採用這種分散式的方法,

  • But since the data cannot be replicated,

    也能避免單點故障的問題。

  • or collected more than once,

    但因為無法複製資料,

  • it means that the design has to keep in mind

    也不能收集第二次,

  • secure and robust access to that information at all times,

    那就表示,設計時要切記

  • so the public institution can offer a service.

    要能隨時安全、穩定 強健地取得那些資訊,

  • This is exactly the role of the data exchange platform

    讓公共機關能夠提供服務。

  • called the X-Road

    這正是資料交換平台的功能,

  • that has been in use since 2001.

    這個平台叫做 X-Road,

  • Just like a highway,

    從 2001 年啟用。

  • it connects public sector databases and registries,

    它就像高速公路一樣,

  • local municipalities and businesses,

    能連結公部門資料庫和登記名冊、

  • organizing a real-time, secure and regulated data exchange,

    當地的自治市和企業,

  • saving an auditable trace after each move.

    以整理出即時、安全、 受控管的資料交換,

  • Here's a screenshot of a live feed

    為每個動作存下可稽核的記錄。

  • showing all the requests performed on the X-Road

    這張螢幕截圖上的即時動態訊息

  • and all the services that it actually facilitates.

    呈現出 X-Road 上進行的所有請求

  • And this is the real picture

    以及它促成的所有服務。

  • of all the connections between public and private sector databases.

    這張圖是真實資料,

  • As you can see,

    公、私部門資料庫間的所有連結。

  • there is no central database whatsoever.

    各位可以看到,

  • Confidentiality and privacy are definitely very important.

    圖上沒有所謂的中央資料庫。

  • But in the digital world,

    保密性和隱私絕對非常重要。

  • reliability and integrity of information

    但在數位世界裡,

  • is just critical for operations.

    資訊的可靠性和完整性

  • For instance,

    對運作而言同樣重要。

  • if someone changes your medical health record,

    比如,若有人更改 你的醫療健康記錄,

  • let's say allergies,

    假設改了過敏資料,

  • without you or your doctor knowing,

    但你和你的醫生都不知情,

  • treatment could be deadly.

    治療就可能會致命。

  • That's why in a digital society, a system like an Estonian one,

    那就是為什麼,在像 愛沙尼亞這樣的數位社會,

  • when there's almost no paper originals,

    幾乎完全沒有文件正本,

  • there's almost only digital originals,

    幾乎只有數位正本時,

  • integrity of data,

    資料完整性、

  • data exchange rules, software components

    資料交換規則、軟體元件,

  • and log files is paramount.

    以及紀錄檔案是至關重要的。

  • We use a form of blockchain that we invented back in 2007,

    我們採用的是 2007 年 自行開發的區塊鏈,

  • way before blockchain even became a thing,

    早在區塊鏈竄紅之前,

  • to check and guarantee the integrity of data in real time.

    便將它用在即時檢核 及確認資料的完整性。

  • Blockchain is our auditor

    區塊鏈是我們的稽核者,

  • and a promise that no access to the data

    並保證所有的資料存取

  • or data manipulation remains unrecorded.

    或資料操作都會留下記錄。

  • Data ownership is another key principle in the design of the system.

    設計系統時的另一條 重要原則是:資料所有權。

  • Aren't you worried by the fact that governments, tech companies

    你難道不會擔心,

  • and other businesses around the world

    政府、科技公司, 及世界各地的企業

  • claim data they've collected about you is theirs,

    宣稱他們擁有那些 收集到關於你的數據,

  • generally refuse to give access to that information,

    他們通常都拒絕開放這些資訊,

  • and often fail to prove how it was used

    且通常無法證實這些資料的用途

  • or shared with third parties?

    或如何與第三方共享?

  • I don't know, for me it seems like a quite disturbing situation.

    對我來說這種情況相當惱人。

  • The Estonian system is based on the principle

    愛沙尼亞的系統有一條基礎原則,

  • that an individual is the owner of the data collected about him,

    那就是收集到的資料如果 與你有關,其所有權就歸你,

  • thus has an absolute right to know what information is collected

    因此你有權可以知道 你被收集的資料有哪些,

  • and who has been accessing it.

    以及誰曾經取得這些資料。

  • Every time a policeman, a doctor or any state officer

    每當有警察、醫生, 或任何公務員

  • is accessing personal information of the citizens online,

    在線上存取公民的個人資訊時,

  • first they only get to access it after logging in

    首先,他們必須登入,

  • to the information they're authorized to see to do their job.

    才能存取那些被授權的相關作業資料。

  • And secondly, every time they're making requests,

    第二,每當他們發出請求,

  • this is saved in a log file.

    檔案都會留下記錄。

  • This detailed log file is part of the state public services

    這詳細的紀錄檔案 是國家公共服務的一部分,

  • and allows real transparency,

    能夠帶來公開透明,

  • making sure no privacy violation will remain unnoticed to the citizen.

    確保若隱私被侵犯時, 該公民不會不知情。

  • Now, of course, this is only a simplified summary

    當然,這只是針對 「e 愛沙尼亞」的

  • of all the design principles that e-Estonia is built on.

    所有基礎設計原則 做的簡單摘要。

  • And now, government is building up

    現在,政府在逐步著手

  • to get ready for use of artificial intelligence

    準備使用人工智慧,

  • and building a whole new generation of public services --

    並建立全新一代的公共服務——

  • proactive services

    主動服務,

  • that would activate seamlessly

    將流暢地啟動,依據

  • based on different life situations that people might be in,

    人們可能遇到的不同生活狀況,

  • such as childbirth, unemployment or starting a business.

    比如生孩子、失業,或創業。

  • Now, of course,

    當然,

  • running a digital society with no paper backup

    營運數位社會,沒有紙本備份

  • can be an issue, right?

    可能會是個問題,對吧?

  • Even though we trust our systems to be solid,

    雖然我們相信系統很穩固,

  • but one can never be too cautious as we experienced back in 2007,

    太小心永遠不為過,就像 我們在 2007 年經歷了

  • when the first cyberincident happened,

    第一起網路資安事件,

  • and it literally blocked part of our networks,

    它真的阻斷了我們的部分網路,

  • making access to the services impossible for hours.

    數小時都無法取得服務。

  • We survived.

    我們度過了。

  • But this event put cybersecurity at the very top of agenda,

    但這個事件之後, 網路安全成為首要議題,

  • both in terms of strengthening the platform and backing it up.

    包括強化與備份這個平台。

  • So how do you back up a country-wide system in a small state

    你要如何在一切都 相距不遠的小國家中

  • where everything is super close?

    備份全國的系統?

  • Well for instance, you can export a copy of the data

    比如,你可以把資料的複本匯出

  • outside the country territory

    到國家領土以外,

  • to an extraterritorial space of an embassy.

    到境外的大使館。

  • Today, we have those data embassies

    現今,我們有這些資料大使館,

  • that are holding the most critical digital assets of Estonia,

    存有愛沙尼亞最重要的數位資產,

  • guaranteeing continuity of operations,

    將確保系統正常運作, 我們的資料受到保護,

  • protection of our data,

    及最重要的,確保我們的主權,

  • and most importantly, our sovereignty.

    若有天國家領土受到實體攻擊。

  • Even in case of a physical attack on our territory.

    在座有些人可能在想:

  • Some of you might be thinking by now:

    這麼做有哪些缺點呢?

  • Where are the downsides?

    全部數位化

  • Well, going all digital

    在行政上會更有效率, 老實說,在財務上亦是如此。

  • is administratively, and let's be honest, financially more efficient.

    主要接觸的介面都是電腦系統,

  • Interfacing primarily with computer systems

    可能會塑造一種印象, 認為人為因素、

  • might create an impression that the human factor,

    民選政治人物,

  • elected politicians

    以及參與民主過程

  • and participating in democratic processes

    似乎沒那麼重要。

  • is somehow less important.

    也有一些人

  • And there are also some people

    覺得受到科技普及的威脅,

  • who feel threatened by pervasive technology

    他們的技能可能會被淘汰。

  • that might make their skills obsolete.

    總之,不幸地,

  • So all in all, unfortunately,

    在數位平台上經營國家

  • running a country on a digital platform

    並無法讓我們免於政治權力鬥爭

  • has not saved us from political power struggles

    和社會的兩極化,

  • and polarization in the society,

    從上次選舉就可以看出這一點,

  • as we have seen in the last elections.

    因為人為的介入。

  • Well, until there are humans involved.

    最後一個問題。

  • One last question.

    如果一切都和所在位置無關,

  • If everything is location-independent

    我可以從世界上任何 一個角落取得服務,

  • and I can access all of the services from anywhere in the world,

    何不讓愛沙尼亞境外的人

  • why cannot others tap into some of these services,

    利用這些服務?

  • even if they don't reside within Estonian borders?

    五年前,

  • Five years ago,

    我們推出「 e 住所專案」 這個政府新創計畫,

  • we launched a governmental start-up called e-Residency program

    至今已經結合了數萬人。

  • that for today joins tens of thousands of people.

    這些人是商人,男女都有,

  • These are businessmen and women from 136 different countries,

    來自 136 個不同國家,

  • who establish their businesses digitally,

    以數位的方式 建立他們的事業,

  • who do their banking online,

    在線上做理財,

  • and who run their companies virtually over e-Estonia platform,

    並在「e 愛沙尼亞」平台上 以遠端的方式經營公司,

  • within European Union legal framework,

    在歐盟的法律框架之下,

  • using an e-identity card similar to mine

    使用的電子身分證和我的很類似,

  • and all of that from anywhere in the world.

    及世界上任何地方的電子身分證。

  • The Estonian system is location-independent

    愛沙尼亞的系統與所在位置無關,

  • and user-centric.

    以使用者為中心。

  • It prioritizes inclusiveness, openness and reliability.

    它最重視的是:無所不包、 開放,以及可靠。

  • It puts security and transparency at its center.

    它的核心是安全及透明度。

  • And the data into the hands of the rightful owner,

    資料也交到具有 正當性的擁有者手上,

  • the person they refer to.

    即,資料所指稱的人。

  • Don't take my word for it.

    不用就此聽信我的片面之詞。

  • Try it.

    請親自試試看。

  • Thank you.

    謝謝。

  • (Applause)

    (掌聲)

Almost 30 years ago,

譯者: Lilian Chiu 審譯者: Val Zhang

字幕與單字

B1 中級 中文 資料 愛沙尼亞 服務 國家 原則 數位化

What a digital government looks like | Anna Piperal

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    林宜悉   發佈於 2020 年 03 月 26 日
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