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  • Our story is about a girl named Iris.

    這個故事是關於一位名叫Iris的女孩(Iris 同時是虹膜的意思)

  • Iris is very sensitive.

    Iris非常敏感

  • So much that she is always in tears.

    敏感到她總是在流淚

  • She cries when she's sad,

    當她難過的時候她會哭,

  • when she's happy,

    當她高興的時候她會哭,

  • and even tears up when things just get to her.

    甚至是當有東西碰到她的時候她會哭。

  • She has special lacrimal glands to make new tears

    她有個特殊的淚腺能製造新的眼淚

  • and special tubes, called lacrimal puncta,

    還有特殊的管子,叫做淚點,

  • to drain old ones away.

    會把舊的眼淚排走。

  • And she cries so much that she goes through

    她太愛哭了,她每天會哭出

  • ten ounces of tears per day,

    十盎司的眼淚,

  • thirty gallons a year!

    一整年有三十加侖!

  • In fact, if you look closely,

    事實上,如果你靠近點看,

  • you'll see that she's crying a little bit all the time.

    你會看見她總是一點一點地在哭。

  • The basal tears that Iris constantly produces

    Iris持續分泌的普通眼淚

  • form a thin coating of three layers

    形成了一個三層的薄膜

  • that cover her and keep dirt and debris away.

    覆蓋住她,避免灰塵和碎片接近。

  • Right next to Iris is the mucus layer,

    緊靠著Iris的是黏液層,

  • which keeps the whole thing fastened to her.

    黏液層能讓整團淚滴緊貼著她。

  • On top of it is the aqueous layer,

    在它的上面是淚水層,

  • which keeps Iris hydrated,

    它讓Iris保持濕潤,

  • repels invasive bacteria,

    擊退入侵的細菌,

  • and protects her skin, or cornea, from damage.

    並保護她的角膜,使其免於傷害。

  • And, finally, there is the lipid layer,

    最後,是油脂層,

  • an oily outer film that keeps the surface smooth

    油性的外膜可以保持表面平滑

  • for Iris to see through,

    讓Iris可以看得清楚,

  • and prevents the other layers from evaporating.

    並避免其他膜層蒸發。

  • Normally, Iris goes about her day

    正常來講,Iris一整天

  • without really noticing the basal tears

    都不會注意到普通眼淚

  • doing their thing.

    的作用。

  • That's kind of their whole point.

    普通眼淚大概就是這麼回事。

  • But one day, she meets a girl named Onion.

    但是有一天,她遇到了一個女孩叫做洋蔥。

  • Iris is immediately smitten.

    Iris馬上就被迷住了。

  • Onion looks gorgeous in her bright purple jacket,

    洋蔥妹穿著亮紫色的夾克看起來很華麗,

  • and she smells terrific.

    而且她聞起來非常香。

  • So, Iris invites Onion to her house for dinner,

    所以,Iris邀請洋蔥妹到她家吃晚餐,

  • but when she comes in and takes off her jacket,

    但是當她進來之後脫下了她的外套,

  • something terrible happens.

    一件可怕的事情就發生了。

  • You see, when Onion's jacket is removed,

    你看,當洋蔥妹的外套被脫掉時,

  • a chemical reaction happens,

    一種化學反應發生了,

  • converting the sulfoxides that make her smell so great

    讓洋蔥妹聞起來很香的化合物亞碸轉換為

  • into sulfenic acid,

    次硫磺,

  • which then becomes a nasty substance with a long name:

    而後又變成一種令人難受、有著落落長名字的物質:

  • syn-Propanethial S-oxide.

    丙硫醛-S-氧化物

  • The gas stings Iris,

    這個氣體刺激著Iris,

  • and suddenenly, she can't help it,

    突然間,她忍不住了,

  • she starts weeping uncontrollably.

    她開始不能控制地流淚。

  • These reflex tears are different from the basal tears that Iris is used to.

    這些反射性眼淚跟Iris平常流的普通眼淚不一樣

  • Because they're designed

    因為它們是被設計用來

  • to wash away harmful substances, or particles,

    清洗有害的物質,或顆粒,

  • they're released in much larger amounts,

    它們會更大量地被釋放,

  • and their aqueous layer contains more antibodies

    淚水層包含更多的抗體

  • to stop any microorganisms that may be trying to get in, as well.

    去阻止任何也試圖進入的微生物

  • Both Iris and Onion are devastated.

    Iris和洋蔥妹都很悲痛

  • They know they can't continue their relationship

    他們知道他們無法繼續他們的關係,

  • if Iris is going to hurt and cry

    要是Iris會受傷並且哭泣

  • every time Onion takes off her jacket.

    在每次洋蔥妹脫掉她的外套時。

  • So, they decide to break up.

    所以,她們決定分手。

  • As Onion walks out the door,

    當洋蔥妹一踏出門,

  • Iris stops crying.

    Iris就停止哭泣。

  • And immediately starts again.

    然後馬上又再次哭了

  • Only now, she's not crying reflex tears

    只是現在,她不是流出反射性眼淚,

  • but emotional tears.

    而是情感性眼淚。

  • When someone is either too sad or too happy,

    當某人太難過或是太高興時,

  • it feels like a loss of control,

    會感覺像是失控,

  • which can be dangerous.

    而這可能會導致危險發生。

  • So, emotional tears are sent in

    所以,情感性眼淚被派去

  • to stabilize the mood as quickly as possible,

    盡快穩定這樣的情緒。

  • along with other physical reactions,

    伴隨其他身體反應,

  • such as an increased heart rate

    像是加快心跳

  • and slower breathing.

    和減緩呼吸。

  • But scientists still aren't sure

    但是科學家仍不確定

  • exactly how or why the tears themselves are helpful.

    眼淚究竟如何提供幫助以及為何會有幫助

  • They may be a social mechanism

    眼淚可能是一種社交機制

  • to elicit sympathy or show submission.

    用以引起同情或示弱。

  • But some studies have also found

    但是有一些研究也發現到

  • that emotional tears contain higher levels

    情感性眼淚有著更高層次的

  • of stress hormones,

    壓力賀爾蒙,

  • such as ACTH and enkephalin,

    像是促腎上腺皮質刺激素(Adrenocorticotropic hormone)和腦啡,

  • an endorphin and natural pain killer.

    一種內啡肽和天然的止痛劑。

  • In this case, emotional tears are also directly calming Iris down,

    在這種情況下,情感性眼淚也會直接使Iris平靜下來,

  • as well as signaling her emotional state to others.

    並且發出她的情緒狀態訊號給其他人。

  • Sorry things didn't work out with Onion, Iris,

    很遺憾和洋蔥妹的感情失敗了,Iris,

  • but don't worry.

    但是別擔心

  • As long as you have all three kinds of tears

    只要你擁有三種眼淚

  • working to keep you balanced and healthy,

    幫助你保持平靜和健康

  • it will get better.

    一切都會變好的

  • You'll see.

    你會明白的

Our story is about a girl named Iris.

這個故事是關於一位名叫Iris的女孩(Iris 同時是虹膜的意思)

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B2 中高級 中文 TED-Ed 眼淚 外套 普通 脫掉 物質

【TED-Ed】我們為何會哭? 三種不同的眼淚 (Why do we cry? The three types of tears - Alex Gendler)

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    阿多賓 發佈於 2014 年 03 月 12 日
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