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  • Three and a half years ago,

    三年半前,

  • I made one of the best decisions of my life.

    我做了一個人生中最正確的決定。

  • As my New Year's resolution,

    過年要有新決心

  • I gave up dieting, stopped worrying about my weight,

    我決定放棄減肥,不再擔心自己的體重

  • and learned to eat mindfully.

    而是吃東西的時候留心一些

  • Now I eat whenever I'm hungry,

    現在,我餓了就吃飯

  • and I've lost 10 pounds.

    而且我已經減掉了10磅(4.5公斤)

  • This was me at age 13,

    這是十三歲的我,第一次減肥

  • when I started my first diet.

    這是十三歲的我,第一次減肥

  • I look at that picture now, and I think,

    現在看著這張照片,我會想

  • you did not need a diet,

    “你不需要減肥”

  • you needed a fashion consult.

    “你倒該去找個時尚顧問…”

  • (Laughter)

    (笑)

  • But I thought I needed to lose weight,

    但當時我認為自己需要減肥, 當減掉的體重又回來之後

  • and when I gained it back,

    但當時我認為自己需要減肥, 當減掉的體重又回來之後

  • of course I blamed myself.

    我全都怪在自己身上。

  • And for the next three decades,

    在接下來的三十多年裡,

  • I was on and off various diets.

    我一次次地嘗試各種減肥法。

  • No matter what I tried,

    不管我怎麼做, 減掉的重量最後總是長回來。

  • the weight I'd lost always came back.

    不管我怎麼做, 減掉的重量最後總是長回來。

  • I'm sure many of you know the feeling.

    肯定有不少人理解這種感覺。

  • As a neuroscientist,

    作為一個神經學家,

  • I wondered, why is this so hard?

    我很好奇為什麼減肥如此困難?

  • Obviously, how much you weigh depends on

    很明顯,體重取決於 “吃多少食物”和“消耗多少能量”

  • how much you eat and how much energy you burn.

    很明顯,體重取決於 “吃多少食物”和“消耗多少能量”

  • What most people don't realize

    而大多數人沒有意識到,

  • is that hunger and energy use

    飢餓感和能量的消耗,是由大腦控制的。

  • are controlled by the brain,

    飢餓感和能量的消耗,是由大腦控制的。

  • mostly without your awareness.

    而基本上和意識無關。

  • Your brain does a lot of its work behind the scenes,

    大腦把很多事情放在“幕後”自動處理,

  • and that is a good thing,

    這是好事,因為你的“意識”──

  • because your conscious mind --

    這是好事,因為你的“意識”──

  • how do we put this politely? --

    ──怎麼把話說得好聽點呢?──

  • it's easily distracted.

    注意力很容易分散。

  • It's good that you don't have to remember to breathe

    比如看電影的時候, 你不用怕自己忘記呼吸怎麼辦。

  • when you get caught up in a movie.

    比如看電影的時候, 你不用怕自己忘記呼吸怎麼辦。

  • You don't forget how to walk

    在考慮晚餐吃什麼的時候, 你不會忘了怎麼走路。

  • because you're thinking about what to have for dinner.

    在考慮晚餐吃什麼的時候, 你不會忘了怎麼走路。

  • Your brain also has its own sense

    大腦對體重也有自己的一套想法,

  • of what you should weigh,

    大腦對體重也有自己的一套想法,

  • no matter what you consciously believe.

    不論你的“意識”是怎麼想的。

  • This is called your set point,

    這被稱為你的“固定值“,

  • but that's a misleading term,

    但這個名字有點誤導視聽,

  • because it's actually a range

    準確來說,這個數值 可以自由浮動約10﹣15磅(約5-7kg)

  • of about 10 or 15 pounds.

    準確來說,這個數值 可以自由浮動約10﹣15磅(約5-7kg)

  • You can use lifestyle choices to move your weight

    生活方式的改變, 會在這個範圍內影響你的體重。

  • up and down within that range,

    生活方式的改變, 會在這個範圍內影響你的體重。

  • but it's much, much harder to stay outside of it.

    但想在這個範圍以外,就非常困難了。

  • The hypothalamus, the part of the brain

    在下丘腦,你大腦調節體重的部份,

  • that regulates body weight,

    在下丘腦,你大腦調節體重的部份,

  • there are more than a dozen chemical signals

    有十多種化學信號控制著”體重的增加“,

  • in the brain that tell your body to gain weight,

    有十多種化學信號控制著”體重的增加“,

  • more than another dozen that tell your body to lose it,

    另外還有十多種化學信號, 控制著”體重的減少“。

  • and the system works like a thermostat,

    這整個系統就像是個恒溫器,

  • responding to signals from the body

    對身體的刺激作出反應,

  • by adjusting hunger, activity and metabolism,

    調整飢餓感,活動量和新陳代謝,

  • to keep your weight stable as conditions change.

    在不同環境下,維持你的體重。

  • That's what a thermostat does, right?

    恒溫器就是這樣工作的,不是麼?

  • It keeps the temperature in your house the same

    恒溫器確保室內溫度 總是保持在一定範圍內

  • as the weather changes outside.

    不管外面的天氣怎麼變化。

  • Now you can try to change the temperature

    你可以在冬天打開窗戶,來調節室內溫度,

  • in your house by opening a window in the winter,

    你可以在冬天打開窗戶,來調節室內溫度,

  • but that's not going to change the setting on the thermostat,

    但這不會改變恒溫器的設定。

  • which will respond by kicking on the furnace

    於是它做出反應,啟動暖爐加熱整個房間。

  • to warm the place back up.

    於是它做出反應,啟動暖爐加熱整個房間。

  • Your brain works exactly the same way,

    減肥的時候,你的大腦也會做出一樣的反應,

  • responding to weight loss by using powerful tools

    減肥的時候,你的大腦也會做出一樣的反應,

  • to push your body back

    用非常規的手段, 把身體調整到”它“認為合適的狀態。

  • to what it considers normal.

    用非常規的手段, 把身體調整到”它“認為合適的狀態。

  • If you lose a lot of weight,

    如果你一口氣減掉很多重量,

  • your brain reacts as if you were starving,

    你的大腦會認為你快餓死了,

  • and whether you started out fat or thin,

    不論一開始是胖是瘦,大腦的反應都是一樣的。

  • your brain's response is exactly the same.

    不論一開始是胖是瘦,大腦的反應都是一樣的。

  • We would love to think that your brain could tell

    我們當然希望大腦 可以判斷本人是否想要減肥

  • whether you need to lose weight or not,

    我們當然希望 大腦可以判斷本人是否想要減肥

  • but it can't.

    但它辦不到。

  • If you do lose a lot of weight,

    如果你一口氣減掉很多,

  • you become hungry,

    你會感到飢餓,

  • and your muscles burn less energy.

    你的肌肉消耗的能量也一起下降。

  • Dr. Rudy Leibel of Columbia University

    哥倫比亞大學的Rudy Leibel教授

  • has found that people who have lost

    發現那些減少過10%體重的人,

  • 10 percent of their body weight

    發現那些減少過10%體重的人,

  • burn 250 to 400 calories less

    每天少消耗250﹣400卡路里

  • because their metabolism is suppressed.

    因為他們的新陳代謝被壓抑了。

  • That's a lot of food.

    那相當於一頓大餐了。

  • This means that a successful dieter

    這就是說,減肥成功的人

  • must eat this much less forever

    必須從此以後每天少吃這麼一頓大餐

  • than someone of the same weight

    才能趕上那些不用減肥, 也一直是這個體重的人。

  • who has always been thin.

    才能趕上那些不用減肥, 也一直是這個體重的人。

  • From an evolutionary perspective,

    從進化的角度來說,

  • your body's resistance to weight loss makes sense.

    身體對於”減肥“的抵抗性是有理由的。

  • When food was scarce, our ancestors' survival

    因為我們的祖先, 在食物匱乏的時候必須節約體能,

  • depended on conserving energy,

    因為我們的祖先, 在食物匱乏的時候必須節約體能,

  • and regaining the weight when food was available

    而在食物充沛時儘快補回失去的分量,

  • would have protected them against the next shortage.

    才能抵禦下一次饑荒。

  • Over the course of human history,

    縱觀歷史,

  • starvation has been a much bigger problem

    食物短缺一直比超重要嚴重得多。

  • than overeating.

    食物短缺一直比超重要嚴重得多。

  • This may explain a very sad fact:

    這解釋了一個令人難過的事實:

  • Set points can go up,

    體重的”固定值“可能上升,

  • but they rarely go down.

    但幾乎不會下降。

  • Now, if your mother ever mentioned

    如果媽媽曾經告訴你們,

  • that life is not fair,

    世上有很多不公平的事,

  • this is the kind of thing she was talking about.

    這肯定就是其中之一了。(笑)

  • (Laughter)

    這肯定就是其中之一了。(笑)

  • Successful dieting doesn't lower your set point.

    減肥成功不會降低你的”固定值“。

  • Even after you've kept the weight off

    就算你保持體重減輕整整七年

  • for as long as seven years,

    就算你保持體重減輕整整七年

  • your brain keeps trying to make you gain it back.

    你的大腦也依然會試圖把體重增回來。

  • If that weight loss had been due to a long famine,

    如果體重減輕是因為長期饑荒

  • that would be a sensible response.

    那這種反應也無可厚非。

  • In our modern world of drive-thru burgers,

    而在快餐橫行的現代社會,

  • it's not working out so well for many of us.

    這套反應機制就不太妙了。

  • That difference between our ancestral past

    古老的過去,和富足的現代之間的差別

  • and our abundant present

    古老的過去,和富足的現代之間的差別

  • is the reason that Dr. Yoni Freedhoff

    正是渥太華大學的Yoni Freedhoff博士

  • of the University of Ottawa

    為什麼會開玩笑說,

  • would like to take some of his patients back to a time

    他想把一些病人送回食物不充足的時代, (“給我一台時光機, 我就給你全世界最好的減肥計劃”)

  • when food was less available,

    他想把一些病人送回食物不充足的時代, (“給我一台時光機, 我就給你全世界最好的減肥計劃”)

  • and it's also the reason

    他想把一些病人送回食物不充足的時代, (“給我一台時光機, 我就給你全世界最好的減肥計劃”)

  • that changing the food environment

    這也是為什麼,飲食環境的改變 才是應對肥胖最有效的措施。

  • is really going to be the most effective solution

    這也是為什麼,飲食環境的改變 才是應對肥胖最有效的措施。

  • to obesity.

    這也是為什麼,飲食環境的改變 才是應對肥胖最有效的措施。

  • Sadly, a temporary weight gain

    可惜的是,一時的增重,

  • can become permanent.

    可能變成永久的增重。

  • If you stay at a high weight for too long,

    如果超重的狀態保持太久,

  • probably a matter of years for most of us,

    對大多數人大概幾年左右,

  • your brain may decide that that's the new normal.

    你的大腦可能會決定說,那才是新的”固定值“。

  • Psychologists classify eaters into two groups,

    心理學家把”吃貨“分為兩類:

  • those who rely on their hunger

    一種是餓了就吃

  • and those who try to control their eating

    一種是試圖控制飲食, 也就是大部份減肥者的做法。

  • through willpower, like most dieters.

    一種是試圖控制飲食, 也就是大部份減肥者的做法。

  • Let's call them intuitive eaters and controlled eaters.

    我們就叫他們”想吃就吃“和”自控地吃“吧。

  • The interesting thing is that intuitive eaters

    有意思的是,”想吃就吃“的人

  • are less likely to be overweight,

    比較不容易超重,

  • and they spend less time thinking about food.

    這些人也不太去想吃的事。

  • Controlled eaters are more vulnerable

    自控的吃貨,反而容易受到諸如

  • to overeating in response to advertising,

    廣告宣傳、超大分量、無限量自助餐 之類的誘惑和影響。

  • super-sizing, and the all-you-can-eat buffet.

    廣告宣傳、超大分量、無限量自助餐 之類的誘惑和影響。

  • And a small indulgence,

    小小的誘惑,

  • like eating one scoop of ice cream,

    比如一勺冰淇淋,

  • is more likely to lead to a food binge

    更容易引起”自控型“的人去暴飲暴食。

  • in controlled eaters.

    更容易引起”自控型“的人去暴飲暴食。

  • Children are especially vulnerable

    青少年尤其容易陷入”減肥後暴食“的循環。

  • to this cycle of dieting and then binging.

    青少年尤其容易陷入”減肥後暴食“的循環。

  • Several long-term studies have shown

    一些長期調查研究顯示,

  • that girls who diet in their early teenage years

    十幾歲時減過肥的女孩,

  • are three times more likely to become overweight

    五年後超重的概率是普通人的三倍,

  • five years later,

    五年後超重的概率是普通人的三倍,

  • even if they started at a normal weight,

    就算她們一開始時體重正常,

  • and all of these studies found

    所有這些研究都顯示

  • that the same factors

    一些因素在預測了超重的同時

  • that predicted weight gain

    一些因素在預測了超重的同時

  • also predicted the development of eating disorders.

    也預測了”飲食障礙“。

  • The other factor, by the way,

    另一個因素,順帶一提,

  • those of you who are parents,

    請家長們注意了,

  • was being teased by family members

    是”被家庭成員嘲笑體重“這件事。

  • about their weight.

    是”被家庭成員嘲笑體重“這件事。

  • So don't do that.

    所以拜託,

  • (Laughter)

    別這麼做了。(笑)

  • I left almost all my graphs at home,

    我幾乎把圖表都留在家裡了,

  • but I couldn't resist throwing in just this one,

    不過我忍不住要給你們看這張圖,

  • because I'm a geek, and that's how I roll.

    因為我是個書蟲,沒圖表不舒服。(笑)

  • (Laughter)

    因為我是個書蟲,沒圖表不舒服。(笑)

  • This is a study that looked at the risk of death

    這是一個持續了十四年

  • over a 14-year period

    關於健康風險的研究

  • based on four healthy habits:

    通過觀察平時的四個健康習慣:

  • eating enough fruits and vegetables,

    攝入足夠的蔬果,

  • exercise three times a week,

    每週運動三次,

  • not smoking,

    不吸菸,

  • and drinking in moderation.

    適度飲酒。

  • Let's start by looking at the normal weight

    我們先來看一看正常體重的人群吧

  • people in the study.

    我們先來看一看正常體重的人群吧

  • The height of the bars is the risk of death,

    柱子的高度,代表死亡率

  • and those zero, one, two, three, four numbers

    橫軸的0,1,2,3,4

  • on the horizontal axis

    橫軸的0,1,2,3,4

  • are the number of those healthy habits

    代表研究對象有幾個健康習慣

  • that a given person had.

    代表研究對象有幾個健康習慣

  • And as you'd expect, the healthier the lifestyle,

    你能猜得到,生活方式越健康,

  • the less likely people were to die during the study.

    人的死亡率也越低。

  • Now let's look at what happens

    接著來看一下

  • in overweight people.

    超重的人的數據。

  • The ones that had no healthy habits

    那些完全沒有健康習慣的人,

  • had a higher risk of death.

    死亡率比較高。

  • Adding just one healthy habit

    僅僅是多了一個健康的習慣

  • pulls overweight people back into the normal range.

    就能把超重的人拉回到普通範圍裡。

  • For obese people with no healthy habits,

    對於沒有任何健康習慣的肥胖者(最右邊)而言,

  • the risk is very high, seven times higher

    死亡風險非常高, 整整比研究中最健康的人高出七倍。

  • than the healthiest groups in the study.

    死亡風險非常高, 整整比研究中最健康的人高出七倍。

  • But a healthy lifestyle helps obese people too.

    但健康的生活方式對肥胖者也有好處。

  • In fact, if you look only at the group

    實際上,如果你光看那些

  • with all four healthy habits,

    四種健康習慣都具備的人,

  • you can see that weight makes very little difference.

    你會發現,是胖是瘦關係不大。

  • You can take control of your health

    如果想要健康的身體

  • by taking control of your lifestyle,

    控制生活習慣就可以了,

  • even If you can't lose weight

    就算你沒辦法減掉體重也沒關係。

  • and keep it off.

    就算你沒辦法減掉體重也沒關係。

  • Diets don't have very much reliability.

    減肥本身就不太可靠。

  • Five years after a diet,

    減肥後的五年內,

  • most people have regained the weight.

    絕大部份人已經反彈了。

  • Forty percent of them have gained even more.

    其中的40%甚至比之前更胖了。

  • If you think about this,

    想想看,

  • the typical outcome of dieting

    就會發現典型的減肥結果,

  • is that you're more likely to gain weight

    更可能是體重增加,而不是減少,

  • in the long run than to lose it.

    就長期而言。

  • If I've convinced you that dieting

    如果我說的讓你信服了

  • might be a problem,

    說減肥可能有壞處

  • the next question is, what do you do about it?

    那麼下一個問題就是,你怎麼辦才好?

  • And my answer, in a word, is mindfulness.

    我的回答,籠統地說,就是”心平氣和”。 (mindfulness也指佛教的“正念”)

  • I'm not saying you need to learn to meditate

    我不是讓你去坐禪冥想,

  • or take up yoga.

    也不是瑜伽。

  • I'm talking about mindful eating:

    我指的是吃東西時留心一點:

  • learning to understand your body's signals

    試著觀察自己身體的信號,

  • so that you eat when you're hungry

    餓了就吃,飽了就停,

  • and stop when you're full,

    餓了就吃,飽了就停,

  • because a lot of weight gain boils down

    因為很多時候體重的增加

  • to eating when you're not hungry.

    是因為明明不餓還要吃。

  • How do you do it?

    具體怎麼做呢?

  • Give yourself permission to eat

    當你餓的時候,允許自己去吃東西,

  • as much as you want, and then work on figuring out

    接著想辦法弄清楚

  • what makes your body feel good.

    怎樣讓身體處於舒適的狀態。

  • Sit down to regular meals without distractions.

    好好專心地坐下吃正餐。

  • Think about how your body feels

    開始吃和停止吃的時候,

  • when you start to eat and when you stop,

    想想看身體的感覺,

  • and let your hunger decide

    讓飢餓感來決定,到哪裡為止。

  • when you should be done.

    讓飢餓感來決定,到哪裡為止。

  • It took about a year for me to learn this,

    掌握這個尺度花了我大概一年的時間,

  • but it's really been worth it.

    不過這很值得。

  • I am so much more relaxed around food

    我不再像以前一樣,

  • than I have ever been in my life.

    現在即使旁邊放著食物,我也能放鬆下來。

  • I often don't think about it.

    我也不太去想吃的事情。

  • I forget we have chocolate in the house.

    我會忘記房間里有塊巧克力。

  • It's like aliens have taken over my brain.

    就好像被外星人控制了我的大腦一樣。(笑)

  • It's just completely different.

    完完全全不一樣了。

  • I should say that

    當然我要說一句,

  • this approach to eating probably won't make you lose weight

    通過這種途徑,基本上不會讓你瘦下來

  • unless you often eat when you're not hungry,

    常常不餓就吃東西那是另一回事。

  • but doctors don't know of any approach

    但是對很多人來說,關於“怎樣才能減輕體重”,

  • that makes significant weight loss in a lot of people,

    醫生也無法給出明確地答案,

  • and that is why a lot of people are now focusing on

    這也是為什麼今天很多人關注的是

  • preventing weight gain

    如果預防肥胖,

  • instead of promoting weight loss.

    而不是到處宣傳減肥。

  • Let's face it:

    面對現實吧:

  • If diets worked, we'd all be thin already.

    要是減肥真的有用,我們早就瘦下來了(笑)