字幕列表 影片播放 已審核 字幕已審核 列印所有字幕 列印翻譯字幕 列印英文字幕 When I was seven years old and my sister was just five years old, 在我七歲，我妹妹才五歲時 we were playing on top of a bunk bed. 有一天我們在雙層床的上舖玩 I was two years older than my sister at the time -- 那時候我比我妹妹大兩歲 -- I mean, I'm two years older than her now -- 我想，我現在還是比她大兩歲 -- but at the time it meant she had to do everything that I wanted to do, 也就是說在當時，她要跟著我做我想做的事 and I wanted to play war. 而我想玩打仗 So we were up on top of our bunk beds. 所以我們爬到上舖 And on one side of the bunk bed, 在雙層床的這一邊 I had put out all of my G.I. Joe soldiers and weaponry. 放著我所有的特種部隊士兵及武器 And on the other side were all my sister's My Little Ponies 在另一邊則是我妹妹的各式彩虹小馬 ready for a cavalry charge. 準備好要衝鋒陷陣 There are differing accounts of what actually happened that afternoon, 那天下午到底發生了什麼事其實是各說各話 but since my sister is not here with us today, 但是既然我妹妹不在場 let me tell you the true story -- 就讓我告訴你真實的情況 (Laughter) -- （笑聲） which is my sister's a little bit on the clumsy side. 當時我妹妹正節節敗退 Somehow, without any help or push from her older brother at all, 不知為何，她哥哥我既沒幫她也沒有推她 suddenly Amy disappeared off of the top of the bunk bed 愛咪突然就從上舖消失了 and landed with this crash on the floor. 砰的一聲摔在地板上 Now I nervously peered over the side of the bed 我很緊張的探頭往下看 to see what had befallen my fallen sister 到底是什麼東西讓我妹妹成了墜落天使 and saw that she had landed painfully on her hands and knees 我看到我妹妹趴在地上，五體投地的樣子 on all fours on the ground. 痛的不得了 I was nervous because my parents had charged me 我好緊張，因為我的父母才命令我 with making sure that my sister and I 一定要確保我妹妹及我 played as safely and as quietly as possible. 在玩耍時盡量保持安全、安靜 And seeing as how I had accidentally broken Amy's arm 因為我上星期才不小心 just one week before ... 摔斷了愛咪的手臂 ... (Laughter) （笑聲） ... heroically pushing her out of the way ... 因為我耍英雄把她推開 of an oncoming imaginary sniper bullet, 為了要閃一顆想像的狙擊手子彈 (Laughter) （笑聲） for which I have yet to be thanked, 她還沒為這件事道謝過 I was trying as hard as I could -- 我盡全力 -- she didn't even see it coming -- 她根本沒看到那顆子彈 -- I was trying as hard as I could to be on my best behavior. 我盡全力要當乖小孩 And I saw my sister's face, 所以我看到我妹妹 this wail of pain and suffering and surprise 又驚又痛哭喪著臉 threatening to erupt from her mouth and threatening to wake 威脅著要嚎啕大哭，把爸媽 my parents from the long winter's nap for which they had settled. 從深冬的午睡吵醒，他們才剛剛睡著 So I did the only thing 所以我試圖用我慌亂的七歲小腦袋 my little frantic seven year-old brain could think to do to avert this tragedy. 能想到的唯一方法來扭轉情勢 And if you have children, you've seen this hundreds of times before. 如果你有孩子，你一定看過幾百次這種場面 I said, "Amy, Amy, wait. Don't cry. Don't cry. 我說：「愛咪，愛咪，等等，不哭，不哭， Did you see how you landed? 妳知道妳怎麼著地的嗎？ No human lands on all fours like that. 沒有人是四腳著地的喔！ Amy, I think this means you're a unicorn." 愛咪，我想你一定是獨角獸。」 (Laughter) （笑聲） Now that was cheating, because there was nothing in the world my sister would want more 那當然是哄騙，因為在這世界上我妹妹 than not to be Amy the hurt five year-old little sister, 絕不想做痛痛的五歲小妹妹愛咪 but Amy the special unicorn. 寧願當特別的獨角獸愛咪 Of course, this was an option that was open to her brain at no point in the past. 當然，之前她從沒想過這個選擇 And you could see how my poor, manipulated sister faced conflict, 然後你想像一下，我可憐又被耍了的妹妹一臉掙扎 as her little brain attempted to devote resources 她的小腦袋一方面要處理 to feeling the pain and suffering and surprise 她剛剛才經歷的 she just experienced, 疼痛與驚嚇 or contemplating her new-found identity as a unicorn. 又要思索著她剛剛才發現的獨角獸新身分 And the latter won out. 而後者贏了 Instead of crying, instead of ceasing our play, 所以她不但沒哭，沒有停止玩耍 instead of waking my parents, 也沒有吵醒我的父母 with all the negative consequences that would have ensued for me, 所有可能發生在我身上的負面後果都沒有發生 instead a smile spread across her face 反而臉上展開微笑 and she scrambled right back up onto the bunk bed with all the grace of a baby unicorn ... 然後以小獨角獸的翩翩姿態爬回雙層床去 ... (Laughter) （笑聲） ... with one broken leg. ... 用她摔斷的腿 What we stumbled across 在我們五歲及七歲這樣的稚齡 at this tender age of just five and seven -- 所經歷到的這個偶發事件 -- we had no idea at the time -- 我們那時並不了解 -- was something that was going be at the vanguard of a scientific revolution 其實是科學革命的先鋒 occurring two decades later in the way that we look at the human brain. 二十年後人類的確以這種方法探討腦部 What we had stumbled across is something called positive psychology, 這個偶然的經歷被稱作正向心理學 which is the reason that I'm here today 這是我今天站在這裡的原因 and the reason that I wake up every morning. 也是我每天早上能醒來的原因 When I first started talking about this research 當我第一次對著非學術機構 outside of academia, out with companies and schools, 就是對公司及學校談論這個研究主題時 the very first thing they said to never do 大家都說絕對不要 is to start your talk with a graph. 一開始就分析圖表 The very first thing I want to do is start my talk with a graph. 但我還是要從一張圖表開始這個主題 This graph looks boring, 這張圖看起來很枯燥乏味 but this graph is the reason I get excited and wake up every morning. 但這張圖正是我每天早上能興奮的起床的原因 And this graph doesn't even mean anything; it's fake data. 這張表沒有任何意義；上面的數據是假的 What we found is -- 我們發現 -- (Laughter) （笑聲） If I got this data back studying you here in the room, I would be thrilled, 如果這張圖是我研究在場各位的結果，我會很激動 because there's very clearly a trend that's going on there, 因為這張圖的趨勢非常明顯 and that means that I can get published, 代表著我可以發表這個研究結果 which is all that really matters. 而發表結果是我做研究最主要的原因 The fact that there's one weird red dot that's up above the curve, 但有一個怪怪的小紅點在曲線的上方 there's one weirdo in the room -- 也就是說這個講座裡有個怪胎 -- I know who you are, I saw you earlier -- 我知道你是誰，我剛剛看到你了 -- that's no problem. 但沒關係 That's no problem, as most of you know, 真的沒關係，大部份的人都知道這不影響 because I can just delete that dot. 因為我只要把這個點刪去就好 I can delete that dot because that's clearly a measurement error. 我可以刪掉它，很明顯它是個測量偏誤 And we know that's a measurement error 它會被判讀是個測量偏誤 because it's messing up my data. 歸因於它讓我的數據很難看 So one of the very first things we teach people 所以在經濟學、統計學、商業學 in economics and statistics and business and psychology courses 及心理學課程裡，我們教大家的第一件事 is how, in a statistically valid way, do we eliminate the weirdos. 就是如何在統計容許範圍內，把怪怪的數據刪掉 How do we eliminate the outliers 如何刪去範圍外的數據 so we can find the line of best fit? 讓我們找到一條最好的曲線？ Which is fantastic if I'm trying to find out 這個方法非常神奇，因為我能藉此方法研究得知 how many Advil the average person should be taking -- two. 一個人吃Advil止痛藥的劑量是兩顆為最佳 But if I'm interested in potential, if I'm interested in your potential, 但如果我想研究的是人的潛力 or for happiness or productivity 或是幸福程度、生產力、 or energy or creativity, 活力、創造力 what we're doing is we're creating the cult of the average with science. 這種科學方法創造出我們對平均數的一種迷思 If I asked a question like, 如果我想研究： "How fast can a child learn how to read in a classroom?" 「在課堂裡，一個學童多快可以學會閱讀？」 scientists change the answer to "How fast does the average child 科學家會把問題改成「在課堂裡，平均一個學童 learn how to read in that classroom?" 多快可以學會閱讀？」 and then we tailor the class right towards the average. 然後我們會盡力研究出一個平均值 Now if you fall below the average on this curve, 如果你的學習速度在平均數以下 then psychologists get thrilled, 心理學家會很興奮 because that means you're either depressed or you have a disorder, 因為那意味著，你要麼患有憂鬱症，或是某種障礙 or hopefully both. 或最好是兩者都有 We're hoping for both because our business model is, 我們希望看到兩者都有，因為我們的商業模式是 if you come into a therapy session with one problem, 如果你因為某種問題去找心理師治療 we want to make sure you leave knowing you have 10, 我們確定你離開的時候，知道自己的病情非常嚴重 so you keep coming back over and over again. 這樣你才會一直回診 We'll go back into your childhood if necessary, 如果有必要，我們會追溯到你的童年， but eventually what we want to do is make you normal again. 不過最終目的，是要讓你再恢復正常 But normal is merely average. 但所謂的正常，就是回到平均值 And what I posit and what positive psychology posits 而從正向心理學的角度來看 is that if we study what is merely average, 如果我們一直研究平均現象 we will remain merely average. 我們就會一直維持在平均現象裡 Then instead of deleting those positive outliers, 所以我沒有刪去那些平均線上方的值 what I intentionally do is come into a population like this one 我盡量在取樣時找平均線之上的人 and say, why? 而且問為什麼？ Why is it that some of you are so high above the curve 為什麼有些人他們的 in terms of your intellectual ability, athletic ability, musical ability, 智力、運動力、音感 creativity, energy levels, 創造力、活動力 your resiliency in the face of challenge, your sense of humor? 面對挑戰的恢復力、甚至幽默感都能遠高於一般平均？ Whatever it is, instead of deleting you, what I want to do is study you. 不管這人在哪一方面很強，我就想研究這種人，而不是刪去這個數據 Because maybe we can glean information -- 因為也許我們可以從這些數據中發現一些東西 not just how to move people up to the average, 我們應該想，該如何把人往平均值以上推升 but how we can move the entire average up 甚至該想，要如何把全球的 in our companies and schools worldwide. 學校或企業都往上提高一個檔次。 The reason this graph is important to me 這張圖對我之所以很重要 is, when I turn on the news, it seems like the majority of the information 是因為當我打開電視看新聞，似乎大部份的資訊 is not positive, in fact it's negative. 都不是正面的報導，實際是負面居多 Most of it's about murder, corruption, diseases, natural disasters. 大多在報謀殺、貪腐、疾病、天災 And very quickly, my brain starts to think 很快地，我的腦袋就會認為 that's the accurate ratio of negative to positive in the world. 這就是目前世界上負面與正面事件的比例 What that's doing is creating something 這種現象就是 called the medical school syndrome -- 所謂醫學院症候群 which, if you know people who've been to medical school, 就是如果你認識在讀醫學院的人 during the first year of medical training, 通常在他們實習的第一年 as you read through a list of all the symptoms and diseases that could happen, 讀遍了所有醫學症狀及疾病的清單後 suddenly you realize you have all of them. 會突然發現自己每個症狀都有 I have a brother in-law named Bobo -- which is a whole other story. 我的妹夫名叫波波–這個名字的來源可以另外講一個故事 Bobo married Amy the unicorn. 波波娶了我的獨角獸妹妹愛咪 Bobo called me on the phone 有一天波波從耶魯的醫學院 from Yale Medical School, 打電話給我 and Bobo said, "Shawn, I have leprosy." 波波說：「紹恩，我得了痲瘋病。」 (Laughter) （笑聲） Which, even at Yale, is extraordinarily rare. 這種病在耶魯非常罕見 But I had no idea how to console poor Bobo 但是我真不知道要怎麼安慰波波 because he had just gotten over an entire week of menopause. 因為他才從一整個星期的停經症狀中恢復過來 (Laughter) （笑聲） See what we're finding is it's not necessarily the reality that shapes us, 我們發現，我們並不盡然由事實所塑造 but the lens through which your brain views the world that shapes your reality. 塑造我們的其實是那副「你的腦子如何看世界」的鏡片 And if we can change the lens, not only can we change your happiness, 如果我們能換掉這個鏡片，我們不但能對快樂的定義改觀 we can change every single educational and business outcome at the same time. 同時我們還可以改變每一個學校及企業的績效 When I applied to Harvard, I applied on a dare. 當我申請哈佛就讀時，我其實是冒險一試 I didn't expect to get in, and my family had no money for college. 我不期望他們會接受我，我家也沒錢讓我讀大學 When I got a military scholarship two weeks later, they allowed me to go. 直到二個星期後我得到了軍方的獎學金，他們就讓我去了 Suddenly, something that wasn't even a possibility became a reality. 突然，一件原本不可能的事成真了 When I went there, I assumed everyone else would see it as a privilege as well, 當我入學時，我以為我的同學都會把能進哈佛當成殊榮 that they'd be excited to be there. 他們應該會很高興能入學 Even if you're in a classroom full of people smarter than you, 即使你整班的同學都比你聰明 you'd be happy just to be in that classroom, which is what I felt. 你都該為了能在這個班而高興，至少我是這麼覺得的 But what I found there 但是我發現 is, while some people experience that, 雖然有些人的確這麼想 when I graduated after my four years 四年後當我大學畢業 and then spent the next eight years living in the dorms with the students -- 然後又花了八年的時間跟學生們住在宿舍 -- Harvard asked me to; I wasn't that guy. 是哈佛要我住的；我不是那個郵包炸彈客 (Laughter) （笑聲） I was an officer of Harvard to counsel students through the difficult four years. 哈佛聘雇我當指導老師，幫助學生度過這困難的四年 And what I found in my research and my teaching 我在我的研究及教學中發現 is that these students, no matter how happy they were 不管這些學生原本 with their original success of getting into the school, 對能成功入學這件事有多高興 two weeks later their brains were focused, not on the privilege of being there, 入學二個星期後他們腦子專注的事，既不是這件殊榮 nor on their philosophy or their physics. 也不是哲學課或物理課 Their brain was focused on the competition, the workload, 他們的腦子專注於競爭、工作量 the hassles, the stresses, the complaints. 麻煩、壓力、抱怨 When I first went in there, I walked into the freshmen dining hall, 當我第一次到那裡，我走進大一宿舍的餐廳 which is where my friends from Waco, Texas, which is where I grew up -- 那時從我老家德州維克市來的朋友們--- I know some of you have heard of it. 也許有些人聽過這事 When they'd come to visit me, they'd look around, 他們到餐廳來找我，並環顧著餐廳 they'd say, "This freshman dining hall looks like something 他們說：「這個大一餐廳看起來好像 out of Hogwart's from the movie "Harry Potter," which it does. 電影哈利波特的霍格華茲。」的確如此。 This is Hogwart's from the movie "Harry Potter" and that's Harvard. 這是電影哈利波特的霍格華茲，而這是哈佛 And when they see this, 我的朋友看看這個地方 they say, "Shawn, why do you waste your time studying happiness at Harvard? 都說，「紹恩，你為什麼要在哈佛浪費時間研究快樂？ Seriously, what does a Harvard student possibly have 說真的，有什麼事會讓這些哈佛學生 to be unhappy about?" 不快樂啊？」 Embedded within that question 這個問題隱藏著 is the key to understanding the science of happiness. 瞭解快樂這門科學的關鍵 Because what that question assumes 因為這個問題預設了某個前提 is that our external world is predictive of our happiness levels, 就是我們幸福的程度，可以由我們的外在環境來預測 when in reality, if I know everything about your external world, 可是事實是，就算我知道你外在環境的一切 I can only predict 10 percent of your long-term happiness. 我也只能預測你10%的長期幸福程度 90 percent of your long-term happiness 另外的90% is predicted not by the external world, 不能以外在環境預測 but by the way your brain processes the world. 是取決於你的腦子如何看待這個環境 And if we change it, 如果我們改變它 if we change our formula for happiness and success, 如果我們改變幸福及成功的公式 what we can do is change the way 改變思考方式 that we can then affect reality. 就可以改變現實 What we found is that only 25 percent of job successes 我們發現只有25%的工作成就 are predicted by I.Q. 可以用智商來預測 75 percent of job successes 另外要預測75%的工作成就 are predicted by your optimism levels, your social support 就看你的樂觀程度，你的社交圈 and your ability to see stress as a challenge instead of as a threat. 還有你能不能把壓力當作挑戰，而不是威脅 I talked to a boarding school up in New England, probably the most prestigious boarding school, 我跟新英格蘭州的一間寄宿學校談過，這所學校大概是最有名的寄宿學校 and they said, "We already know that. 他們說：「我們早就知道了 So every year, instead of just teaching our students, we also have a wellness week. 所以每年我們除了教學外，還有一個健康周活動 And we're so excited. Monday night we have the world's leading expert 我們非常興奮。星期一晚上我們請了世界領先的專家 coming in to speak about adolescent depression. 來談談青少年期的憂鬱 Tuesday night it's school violence and bullying. 星期二晚上是有關學校暴力及罷凌的問題 Wednesday night is eating disorders. 星期三晚上則是飲食障礙 Thursday night is elicit drug use. 星期四晚上談毒品誘惑 And Friday night we're trying to decide between risky sex or happiness." 星期五晚上討論危險性行為與快樂的抉擇。」 (Laughter) （笑聲） I said, "That's most people's Friday nights." 我說：「大部份人的星期五晚上都是這樣的。」 (Laughter) （笑聲） (Applause) （鼓掌） Which I'm glad you liked, but they did not like that at all. 我很高興你們喜歡這個笑話，但是他們不喜歡 Silence on the phone. 電話的那一頭默不作聲 And into the silence, I said, "I'd be happy to speak at your school, 為了打破僵局，我說：「我很高興能在你的學校演講 but just so you know, that's not a wellness week, that's a sickness week. 不過你知道，那不是健康周，那簡直是疾病周 What you've done is you've outlined all the negative things that can happen, 你所做的其實是強調所有可能發生的負面東西 but not talked about the positive." 但是都沒有提到正向的東西。」 The absence of disease is not health. 沒有病並不代表健康 Here's how we get to health: 以下是我們得到健康的方法 We need to reverse the formula for happiness and success. 我們必須把幸福及成功的公式反過來寫 In the last three years, I've traveled to 45 different countries, 過去三年，經濟正不景氣的時候 working with schools and companies 我到過45個不同的國家 in the midst of an economic downturn. 跟學校及公司合作 And what I found is that most companies and schools 我發現大部份的公司及學校 follow a formula for success, which is this: 都遵照一個成功公式，就是 If I work harder, I'll be more successful. 如果我更努力工作，我就會更成功 And if I'm more successful, then I'll be happier. 如果我更成功，我就會更快樂 That undergirds most of our parenting styles, our managing styles, 這是我們的教養態度及管理模式的根本 the way that we motivate our behavior.