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  • When I was seven years old and my sister was just five years old,

    在我七歲,我妹妹才五歲時

  • we were playing on top of a bunk bed.

    有一天我們在雙層床的上舖玩

  • I was two years older than my sister at the time --

    那時候我比我妹妹大兩歲 --

  • I mean, I'm two years older than her now --

    我想,我現在還是比她大兩歲 --

  • but at the time it meant she had to do everything that I wanted to do,

    也就是說在當時,她要跟著我做我想做的事

  • and I wanted to play war.

    而我想玩打仗

  • So we were up on top of our bunk beds.

    所以我們爬到上舖

  • And on one side of the bunk bed,

    在雙層床的這一邊

  • I had put out all of my G.I. Joe soldiers and weaponry.

    放著我所有的特種部隊士兵及武器

  • And on the other side were all my sister's My Little Ponies

    在另一邊則是我妹妹的各式彩虹小馬

  • ready for a cavalry charge.

    準備好要衝鋒陷陣

  • There are differing accounts of what actually happened that afternoon,

    那天下午到底發生了什麼事其實是各說各話

  • but since my sister is not here with us today,

    但是既然我妹妹不在場

  • let me tell you the true story --

    就讓我告訴你真實的情況

  • (Laughter) --

    (笑聲)

  • which is my sister's a little bit on the clumsy side.

    當時我妹妹正節節敗退

  • Somehow, without any help or push from her older brother at all,

    不知為何,她哥哥我既沒幫她也沒有推她

  • suddenly Amy disappeared off of the top of the bunk bed

    愛咪突然就從上舖消失了

  • and landed with this crash on the floor.

    砰的一聲摔在地板上

  • Now I nervously peered over the side of the bed

    我很緊張的探頭往下看

  • to see what had befallen my fallen sister

    到底是什麼東西讓我妹妹成了墜落天使

  • and saw that she had landed painfully on her hands and knees

    我看到我妹妹趴在地上,五體投地的樣子

  • on all fours on the ground.

    痛的不得了

  • I was nervous because my parents had charged me

    我好緊張,因為我的父母才命令我

  • with making sure that my sister and I

    一定要確保我妹妹及我

  • played as safely and as quietly as possible.

    在玩耍時盡量保持安全、安靜

  • And seeing as how I had accidentally broken Amy's arm

    因為我上星期才不小心

  • just one week before ...

    摔斷了愛咪的手臂 ...

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • ... heroically pushing her out of the way

    ... 因為我耍英雄把她推開

  • of an oncoming imaginary sniper bullet,

    為了要閃一顆想像的狙擊手子彈

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • for which I have yet to be thanked,

    她還沒為這件事道謝過

  • I was trying as hard as I could --

    我盡全力 --

  • she didn't even see it coming --

    她根本沒看到那顆子彈 --

  • I was trying as hard as I could to be on my best behavior.

    我盡全力要當乖小孩

  • And I saw my sister's face,

    所以我看到我妹妹

  • this wail of pain and suffering and surprise

    又驚又痛哭喪著臉

  • threatening to erupt from her mouth and threatening to wake

    威脅著要嚎啕大哭,把爸媽

  • my parents from the long winter's nap for which they had settled.

    從深冬的午睡吵醒,他們才剛剛睡著

  • So I did the only thing

    所以我試圖用我慌亂的七歲小腦袋

  • my little frantic seven year-old brain could think to do to avert this tragedy.

    能想到的唯一方法來扭轉情勢

  • And if you have children, you've seen this hundreds of times before.

    如果你有孩子,你一定看過幾百次這種場面

  • I said, "Amy, Amy, wait. Don't cry. Don't cry.

    我說:「愛咪,愛咪,等等,不哭,不哭,

  • Did you see how you landed?

    妳知道妳怎麼著地的嗎?

  • No human lands on all fours like that.

    沒有人是四腳著地的喔!

  • Amy, I think this means you're a unicorn."

    愛咪,我想你一定是獨角獸。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Now that was cheating, because there was nothing in the world my sister would want more

    那當然是哄騙,因為在這世界上我妹妹

  • than not to be Amy the hurt five year-old little sister,

    絕不想做痛痛的五歲小妹妹愛咪

  • but Amy the special unicorn.

    寧願當特別的獨角獸愛咪

  • Of course, this was an option that was open to her brain at no point in the past.

    當然,之前她從沒想過這個選擇

  • And you could see how my poor, manipulated sister faced conflict,

    然後你想像一下,我可憐又被耍了的妹妹一臉掙扎

  • as her little brain attempted to devote resources

    她的小腦袋一方面要處理

  • to feeling the pain and suffering and surprise

    她剛剛才經歷的

  • she just experienced,

    疼痛與驚嚇

  • or contemplating her new-found identity as a unicorn.

    又要思索著她剛剛才發現的獨角獸新身分

  • And the latter won out.

    而後者贏了

  • Instead of crying, instead of ceasing our play,

    所以她不但沒哭,沒有停止玩耍

  • instead of waking my parents,

    也沒有吵醒我的父母

  • with all the negative consequences that would have ensued for me,

    所有可能發生在我身上的負面後果都沒有發生

  • instead a smile spread across her face

    反而臉上展開微笑

  • and she scrambled right back up onto the bunk bed with all the grace of a baby unicorn ...

    然後以小獨角獸的翩翩姿態爬回雙層床去 ...

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • ... with one broken leg.

    ... 用她摔斷的腿

  • What we stumbled across

    在我們五歲及七歲這樣的稚齡

  • at this tender age of just five and seven --

    所經歷到的這個偶發事件 --

  • we had no idea at the time --

    我們那時並不了解 --

  • was something that was going be at the vanguard of a scientific revolution

    其實是科學革命的先鋒

  • occurring two decades later in the way that we look at the human brain.

    二十年後人類的確以這種方法探討腦部

  • What we had stumbled across is something called positive psychology,

    這個偶然的經歷被稱作正向心理學

  • which is the reason that I'm here today

    這是我今天站在這裡的原因

  • and the reason that I wake up every morning.

    也是我每天早上能醒來的原因

  • When I first started talking about this research

    當我第一次對著非學術機構

  • outside of academia, out with companies and schools,

    就是對公司及學校談論這個研究主題時

  • the very first thing they said to never do

    大家都說絕對不要

  • is to start your talk with a graph.

    一開始就分析圖表

  • The very first thing I want to do is start my talk with a graph.

    但我還是要從一張圖表開始這個主題

  • This graph looks boring,

    這張圖看起來很枯燥乏味

  • but this graph is the reason I get excited and wake up every morning.

    但這張圖正是我每天早上能興奮的起床的原因

  • And this graph doesn't even mean anything; it's fake data.

    這張表沒有任何意義;上面的數據是假的

  • What we found is --

    我們發現 --

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • If I got this data back studying you here in the room, I would be thrilled,

    如果這張圖是我研究在場各位的結果,我會很激動

  • because there's very clearly a trend that's going on there,

    因為這張圖的趨勢非常明顯

  • and that means that I can get published,

    代表著我可以發表這個研究結果

  • which is all that really matters.

    而發表結果是我做研究最主要的原因

  • The fact that there's one weird red dot that's up above the curve,

    但有一個怪怪的小紅點在曲線的上方

  • there's one weirdo in the room --

    也就是說這個講座裡有個怪胎 --

  • I know who you are, I saw you earlier --

    我知道你是誰,我剛剛看到你了 --

  • that's no problem.

    但沒關係

  • That's no problem, as most of you know,

    真的沒關係,大部份的人都知道這不影響

  • because I can just delete that dot.

    因為我只要把這個點刪去就好

  • I can delete that dot because that's clearly a measurement error.

    我可以刪掉它,很明顯它是個測量偏誤

  • And we know that's a measurement error

    它會被判讀是個測量偏誤

  • because it's messing up my data.

    歸因於它讓我的數據很難看

  • So one of the very first things we teach people

    所以在經濟學、統計學、商業學

  • in economics and statistics and business and psychology courses

    及心理學課程裡,我們教大家的第一件事

  • is how, in a statistically valid way, do we eliminate the weirdos.

    就是如何在統計容許範圍內,把怪怪的數據刪掉

  • How do we eliminate the outliers

    如何刪去範圍外的數據

  • so we can find the line of best fit?

    讓我們找到一條最好的曲線?

  • Which is fantastic if I'm trying to find out

    這個方法非常神奇,因為我能藉此方法研究得知

  • how many Advil the average person should be taking -- two.

    一個人吃Advil止痛藥的劑量是兩顆為最佳

  • But if I'm interested in potential, if I'm interested in your potential,

    但如果我想研究的是人的潛力

  • or for happiness or productivity

    或是幸福程度、生產力、

  • or energy or creativity,

    活力、創造力

  • what we're doing is we're creating the cult of the average with science.

    這種科學方法創造出我們對平均數的一種迷思

  • If I asked a question like,

    如果我想研究:

  • "How fast can a child learn how to read in a classroom?"

    「在課堂裡,一個學童多快可以學會閱讀?」

  • scientists change the answer to "How fast does the average child

    科學家會把問題改成「在課堂裡,平均一個學童

  • learn how to read in that classroom?"

    多快可以學會閱讀?」

  • and then we tailor the class right towards the average.

    然後我們會盡力研究出一個平均值

  • Now if you fall below the average on this curve,

    如果你的學習速度在平均數以下

  • then psychologists get thrilled,

    心理學家會很興奮

  • because that means you're either depressed or you have a disorder,

    因為那意味著,你要麼患有憂鬱症,或是某種障礙

  • or hopefully both.

    或最好是兩者都有

  • We're hoping for both because our business model is,

    我們希望看到兩者都有,因為我們的商業模式是

  • if you come into a therapy session with one problem,

    如果你因為某種問題去找心理師治療

  • we want to make sure you leave knowing you have 10,

    我們確定你離開的時候,知道自己的病情非常嚴重

  • so you keep coming back over and over again.

    這樣你才會一直回診

  • We'll go back into your childhood if necessary,

    如果有必要,我們會追溯到你的童年,

  • but eventually what we want to do is make you normal again.

    不過最終目的,是要讓你再恢復正常

  • But normal is merely average.

    但所謂的正常,就是回到平均值

  • And what I posit and what positive psychology posits

    而從正向心理學的角度來看

  • is that if we study what is merely average,

    如果我們一直研究平均現象

  • we will remain merely average.

    我們就會一直維持在平均現象裡

  • Then instead of deleting those positive outliers,

    所以我沒有刪去那些平均線上方的值

  • what I intentionally do is come into a population like this one

    我盡量在取樣時找平均線之上的人

  • and say, why?

    而且問為什麼?

  • Why is it that some of you are so high above the curve

    為什麼有些人他們的

  • in terms of your intellectual ability, athletic ability, musical ability,

    智力、運動力、音感

  • creativity, energy levels,

    創造力、活動力

  • your resiliency in the face of challenge, your sense of humor?

    面對挑戰的恢復力、甚至幽默感都能遠高於一般平均?

  • Whatever it is, instead of deleting you, what I want to do is study you.

    不管這人在哪一方面很強,我就想研究這種人,而不是刪去這個數據

  • Because maybe we can glean information --

    因為也許我們可以從這些數據中發現一些東西

  • not just how to move people up to the average,

    我們應該想,該如何把人往平均值以上推升

  • but how we can move the entire average up

    甚至該想,要如何把全球的

  • in our companies and schools worldwide.

    學校或企業都往上提高一個檔次。

  • The reason this graph is important to me

    這張圖對我之所以很重要

  • is, when I turn on the news, it seems like the majority of the information

    是因為當我打開電視看新聞,似乎大部份的資訊

  • is not positive, in fact it's negative.

    都不是正面的報導,實際是負面居多

  • Most of it's about murder, corruption, diseases, natural disasters.

    大多在報謀殺、貪腐、疾病、天災

  • And very quickly, my brain starts to think

    很快地,我的腦袋就會認為

  • that's the accurate ratio of negative to positive in the world.

    這就是目前世界上負面與正面事件的比例

  • What that's doing is creating something

    這種現象就是

  • called the medical school syndrome --

    所謂醫學院症候群

  • which, if you know people who've been to medical school,

    就是如果你認識在讀醫學院的人

  • during the first year of medical training,

    通常在他們實習的第一年

  • as you read through a list of all the symptoms and diseases that could happen,

    讀遍了所有醫學症狀及疾病的清單後

  • suddenly you realize you have all of them.

    會突然發現自己每個症狀都有

  • I have a brother in-law named Bobo -- which is a whole other story.

    我的妹夫名叫波波–這個名字的來源可以另外講一個故事

  • Bobo married Amy the unicorn.

    波波娶了我的獨角獸妹妹愛咪

  • Bobo called me on the phone

    有一天波波從耶魯的醫學院

  • from Yale Medical School,

    打電話給我

  • and Bobo said, "Shawn, I have leprosy."

    波波說:「紹恩,我得了痲瘋病。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • Which, even at Yale, is extraordinarily rare.

    這種病在耶魯非常罕見

  • But I had no idea how to console poor Bobo

    但是我真不知道要怎麼安慰波波

  • because he had just gotten over an entire week of menopause.

    因為他才從一整個星期的停經症狀中恢復過來

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • See what we're finding is it's not necessarily the reality that shapes us,

    我們發現,我們並不盡然由事實所塑造

  • but the lens through which your brain views the world that shapes your reality.

    塑造我們的其實是那副「你的腦子如何看世界」的鏡片

  • And if we can change the lens, not only can we change your happiness,

    如果我們能換掉這個鏡片,我們不但能對快樂的定義改觀

  • we can change every single educational and business outcome at the same time.

    同時我們還可以改變每一個學校及企業的績效

  • When I applied to Harvard, I applied on a dare.

    當我申請哈佛就讀時,我其實是冒險一試

  • I didn't expect to get in, and my family had no money for college.

    我不期望他們會接受我,我家也沒錢讓我讀大學

  • When I got a military scholarship two weeks later, they allowed me to go.

    直到二個星期後我得到了軍方的獎學金,他們就讓我去了

  • Suddenly, something that wasn't even a possibility became a reality.

    突然,一件原本不可能的事成真了

  • When I went there, I assumed everyone else would see it as a privilege as well,

    當我入學時,我以為我的同學都會把能進哈佛當成殊榮

  • that they'd be excited to be there.

    他們應該會很高興能入學

  • Even if you're in a classroom full of people smarter than you,

    即使你整班的同學都比你聰明

  • you'd be happy just to be in that classroom, which is what I felt.

    你都該為了能在這個班而高興,至少我是這麼覺得的

  • But what I found there

    但是我發現

  • is, while some people experience that,

    雖然有些人的確這麼想

  • when I graduated after my four years

    四年後當我大學畢業

  • and then spent the next eight years living in the dorms with the students --

    然後又花了八年的時間跟學生們住在宿舍 --

  • Harvard asked me to; I wasn't that guy.

    是哈佛要我住的;我不是那個郵包炸彈客

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I was an officer of Harvard to counsel students through the difficult four years.

    哈佛聘雇我當指導老師,幫助學生度過這困難的四年

  • And what I found in my research and my teaching

    我在我的研究及教學中發現

  • is that these students, no matter how happy they were

    不管這些學生原本

  • with their original success of getting into the school,

    對能成功入學這件事有多高興

  • two weeks later their brains were focused, not on the privilege of being there,

    入學二個星期後他們腦子專注的事,既不是這件殊榮

  • nor on their philosophy or their physics.

    也不是哲學課或物理課

  • Their brain was focused on the competition, the workload,

    他們的腦子專注於競爭、工作量

  • the hassles, the stresses, the complaints.

    麻煩、壓力、抱怨

  • When I first went in there, I walked into the freshmen dining hall,

    當我第一次到那裡,我走進大一宿舍的餐廳

  • which is where my friends from Waco, Texas, which is where I grew up --

    那時從我老家德州維克市來的朋友們---

  • I know some of you have heard of it.

    也許有些人聽過這事

  • When they'd come to visit me, they'd look around,

    他們到餐廳來找我,並環顧著餐廳

  • they'd say, "This freshman dining hall looks like something

    他們說:「這個大一餐廳看起來好像

  • out of Hogwart's from the movie "Harry Potter," which it does.

    電影哈利波特的霍格華茲。」的確如此。

  • This is Hogwart's from the movie "Harry Potter" and that's Harvard.

    這是電影哈利波特的霍格華茲,而這是哈佛

  • And when they see this,

    我的朋友看看這個地方

  • they say, "Shawn, why do you waste your time studying happiness at Harvard?

    都說,「紹恩,你為什麼要在哈佛浪費時間研究快樂?

  • Seriously, what does a Harvard student possibly have

    說真的,有什麼事會讓這些哈佛學生

  • to be unhappy about?"

    不快樂啊?」

  • Embedded within that question

    這個問題隱藏著

  • is the key to understanding the science of happiness.

    瞭解快樂這門科學的關鍵

  • Because what that question assumes

    因為這個問題預設了某個前提

  • is that our external world is predictive of our happiness levels,

    就是我們幸福的程度,可以由我們的外在環境來預測

  • when in reality, if I know everything about your external world,

    可是事實是,就算我知道你外在環境的一切

  • I can only predict 10 percent of your long-term happiness.

    我也只能預測你10%的長期幸福程度

  • 90 percent of your long-term happiness

    另外的90%

  • is predicted not by the external world,

    不能以外在環境預測

  • but by the way your brain processes the world.

    是取決於你的腦子如何看待這個環境

  • And if we change it,

    如果我們改變它

  • if we change our formula for happiness and success,

    如果我們改變幸福及成功的公式

  • what we can do is change the way

    改變思考方式

  • that we can then affect reality.

    就可以改變現實

  • What we found is that only 25 percent of job successes

    我們發現只有25%的工作成就

  • are predicted by I.Q.

    可以用智商來預測

  • 75 percent of job successes

    另外要預測75%的工作成就

  • are predicted by your optimism levels, your social support

    就看你的樂觀程度,你的社交圈

  • and your ability to see stress as a challenge instead of as a threat.

    還有你能不能把壓力當作挑戰,而不是威脅

  • I talked to a boarding school up in New England, probably the most prestigious boarding school,

    我跟新英格蘭州的一間寄宿學校談過,這所學校大概是最有名的寄宿學校

  • and they said, "We already know that.

    他們說:「我們早就知道了

  • So every year, instead of just teaching our students, we also have a wellness week.

    所以每年我們除了教學外,還有一個健康周活動

  • And we're so excited. Monday night we have the world's leading expert

    我們非常興奮。星期一晚上我們請了世界領先的專家

  • coming in to speak about adolescent depression.

    來談談青少年期的憂鬱

  • Tuesday night it's school violence and bullying.

    星期二晚上是有關學校暴力及罷凌的問題

  • Wednesday night is eating disorders.

    星期三晚上則是飲食障礙

  • Thursday night is elicit drug use.

    星期四晚上談毒品誘惑

  • And Friday night we're trying to decide between risky sex or happiness."

    星期五晚上討論危險性行為與快樂的抉擇。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • I said, "That's most people's Friday nights."

    我說:「大部份人的星期五晚上都是這樣的。」

  • (Laughter)

    (笑聲)

  • (Applause)

    (鼓掌)

  • Which I'm glad you liked, but they did not like that at all.

    我很高興你們喜歡這個笑話,但是他們不喜歡

  • Silence on the phone.

    電話的那一頭默不作聲

  • And into the silence, I said, "I'd be happy to speak at your school,

    為了打破僵局,我說:「我很高興能在你的學校演講

  • but just so you know, that's not a wellness week, that's a sickness week.

    不過你知道,那不是健康周,那簡直是疾病周

  • What you've done is you've outlined all the negative things that can happen,

    你所做的其實是強調所有可能發生的負面東西

  • but not talked about the positive."

    但是都沒有提到正向的東西。」

  • The absence of disease is not health.

    沒有病並不代表健康

  • Here's how we get to health:

    以下是我們得到健康的方法

  • We need to reverse the formula for happiness and success.

    我們必須把幸福及成功的公式反過來寫

  • In the last three years, I've traveled to 45 different countries,

    過去三年,經濟正不景氣的時候

  • working with schools and companies

    我到過45個不同的國家

  • in the midst of an economic downturn.

    跟學校及公司合作

  • And what I found is that most companies and schools

    我發現大部份的公司及學校

  • follow a formula for success, which is this:

    都遵照一個成功公式,就是

  • If I work harder, I'll be more successful.

    如果我更努力工作,我就會更成功

  • And if I'm more successful, then I'll be happier.

    如果我更成功,我就會更快樂

  • That undergirds most of our parenting styles, our managing styles,

    這是我們的教養態度及管理模式的根本

  • the way that we motivate our behavior.