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  • How do you explain when

    你會怎麼解釋

  • things don't go as we assume?

    當事情不如我們所想的一般時?

  • Or better, how do you explain

    或者更好的是,你如何解釋

  • when others are able to achieve things

    當其他人能夠完成似乎

  • that seem to defy all of the assumptions?

    違反所有假設的事時?

  • For example:

    比如:

  • Why is Apple so innovative?

    為什麼蘋果電腦這麼地有創意?

  • Year after year, after year, after year,

    年復年

  • they're more innovative than all their competition.

    他們比其他的競爭對手都要有創意

  • And yet, they're just a computer company.

    然而,他們只是一個電腦公司

  • They're just like everyone else.

    就像其他電腦公司一樣

  • They have the same access to the same talent,

    他們對有同樣才華的人有相同的管道接觸

  • the same agencies, the same consultants, the same media.

    同樣的廣告商、同樣的顧問、同樣的媒體

  • Then why is it that they

    那麼為什麼他們

  • seem to have something different?

    似乎有點與眾不同?

  • Why is it that Martin Luther King

    為什麼是馬汀路德金恩

  • led the Civil Rights Movement?

    領導黑人民權運動?

  • He wasn't the only man

    他不是唯一一個

  • who suffered in a pre-civil rights America,

    在美國受到平等公民權不公平待遇的人

  • and he certainly wasn't the only great orator of the day.

    而且他絕不是當時最偉大的演說家

  • Why him?

    為什麼是他?

  • And why is it that the Wright brothers

    而為什麼是華特兄弟

  • were able to figure out controlled, powered man flight

    能夠想到控制力量,操控飛機

  • when there were certainly other teams who were

    當正有其他團隊

  • better qualified, better funded ...

    更有資格、更有資本

  • and they didn't achieve powered man flight,

    然而他們並沒有完成飛機

  • and the Wright brothers beat them to it.

    反而是華特兄弟打敗他們完成了這件事。

  • There's something else at play here.

    這似乎有其他的因素在其中

  • About three and a half years ago

    大約三年半前

  • I made a discovery.

    我有一個發現

  • And this discovery profoundly changed

    而這個發現深深地改變

  • my view on how I thought the world worked,

    我對世界運作方式的看法

  • and it even profoundly changed the way in which

    而它甚至深深改變

  • I operate in it.

    我生活的方式

  • As it turns out, there's a pattern.

    因為它變成—有個模式

  • As it turns out, all the great and inspiring leaders

    而它引證了,所有偉大且具有啟發性的領袖

  • and organizations in the world --

    以及世界上的機構

  • whether it's Apple or Martin Luther King or the Wright brothers --

    不管是蘋果電腦,或馬汀路德金恩或華特兄弟

  • they all think, act and communicate

    他們都以同樣的方式

  • the exact same way.

    思考、行動與溝通

  • And it's the complete opposite

    而這也完全與其他人

  • to everyone else.

    相反

  • All I did was codify it,

    我做的事就是解讀它

  • and it's probably the world's

    而它或許是世界上

  • simplest idea.

    最簡單的想法

  • I call it the golden circle.

    我稱它做黃金圈

  • Why? How? What?

    為什麼?怎麼做?做什麼?

  • This little idea explains

    這個小小的想法解釋了

  • why some organizations and some leaders

    為什麼有些機構和有些領袖

  • are able to inspire where others aren't.

    能夠激勵群眾而別人做不到

  • Let me define the terms really quickly.

    讓我很快地定義這些詞

  • Every single person, every single organization on the planet

    在這個星球上的每個人,每個機構都

  • knows what they do,

    知道他們在做什麼 -

  • 100 percent.

    百分之百肯定

  • Some know how they do it,

    有些知道如何做事

  • whether you call it your differentiated value proposition

    這裡可以叫做是你不同的價值主張

  • or your proprietary process or your USP.

    或者你的屬性過程或你的USP (賣點)

  • But very, very few people or organizations

    但很少很少人或機構

  • know why they do what they do.

    知道為什麼做他們正在做的事

  • And by "why" I don't mean "to make a profit."

    而〞為什麼〞不是指〞創造利潤“

  • That's a result. It's always a result.

    那是結果。它永遠是結果。

  • By "why," I mean: What's your purpose?

    〞為什麼〞指的是:你的目的是什麼?

  • What's your cause? What's your belief?

    你的出發點是什麼?你的信念是什麼?

  • Why does your organization exist?

    為什麼你的機構存在?

  • Why do you get out of bed in the morning?

    為什麼你早上要起床?

  • And why should anyone care?

    而且為什麼其他人要在乎?

  • Well, as a result, the way we think, the way we act,

    好的,結果是我們所想、所為

  • the way we communicate is from the outside in.

    以及我們所溝通的方式都是由外而內的

  • It's obvious. We go from the clearest thing to the fuzziest thing.

    很明顯。我們從最清楚到最模糊不明

  • But the inspired leaders

    但激勵人的領導者

  • and the inspired organizations --

    以及激勵人們的機構

  • regardless of their size, regardless of their industry --

    不管它們的規模,不管它們的產業

  • all think, act and communicate

    都以由內而外的方式

  • from the inside out.

    去思考、行動與溝通

  • Let me give you an example.

    讓我給你們舉個例子

  • I use Apple because they're easy to understand and everybody gets it.

    我使用蘋果電腦是因為它很容易明白,而所有人都明白它

  • If Apple were like everyone else,

    如果蘋果電腦就像其他的電腦

  • a marketing message from them might sound like this:

    給的行銷訊息很可能聽起來像

  • "We make great computers.

    我們製造最棒的電腦

  • They're beautifully designed, simple to use

    他們都有美好的設計、容易上手

  • and user friendly.

    也迎合使用者的要求

  • Want to buy one?" "Meh."

    想買一台嗎?...呃,不要。

  • And that's how most of us communicate.

    這就是多數人溝通的方式

  • That's how most marketing is done, that's how most sales is done

    這就是多數行銷的方式。 這是多數業務銷售的方式

  • and that's how most of us communicate interpersonally.

    而這也是我們多數人與人相處時的溝通方式

  • We say what we do, we say how we're different or how we're better

    我們說我們做了什麼,我們說我們如何不同或我們如何比較好

  • and we expect some sort of a behavior,

    然後我們期待某種行為

  • a purchase, a vote, something like that.

    可能是購買行為、投票行為或這類的事

  • Here's our new law firm:

    這裡是我們新的法律公司

  • We have the best lawyers with the biggest clients,

    我們有最好的律師和最大的客戶

  • we always perform for our clients who do business with us.

    我們總是為和我們做生意的客戶著想

  • Here's our new car:

    這是我們的新車

  • It gets great gas mileage, it has leather seats, buy our car.

    它有很好的油耗表現。它有皮革製的座椅。買我們的車吧。

  • But it's uninspiring.

    但這都不激勵人心

  • Here's how Apple actually communicates.

    這裡有蘋果電腦實際上溝通的方式:

  • "Everything we do,

    我們所做的每件事

  • we believe in challenging the status quo.

    我們相信都在挑戰現狀

  • We believe in thinking differently.

    我們相信用不同的角度思考

  • The way we challenge the status quo

    我們挑戰現狀的方式

  • is by making our products beautifully designed,

    是使我們的產品有美好的設計

  • simple to use and user friendly.

    容易使用而且迎合使用者。

  • We just happen to make great computers.

    我們只是恰巧做了很棒的電腦。

  • Want to buy one?"

    想要買一台嗎?

  • Totally different right? You're ready to buy a computer from me.

    完全不一樣,對吧?你準備要從我這裡買一台電腦了。

  • All I did was reverse the order of the information.

    我只要改變資訊的順序

  • What it proves to us is that people don't buy what you do;

    這個例子告訴我們人們不會買你做了什麼

  • people buy why you do it.

    人們要買你為什麼做它

  • People don't buy what you do; they buy why you do it.

    人們不會買你做什麼;他們要買你的為什麼。

  • This explains why

    這解釋了為什麼

  • every single person in this room

    在場的每個人

  • is perfectly comfortable buying a computer from Apple.

    都對買蘋果電腦感到很好

  • But we're also perfectly comfortable

    但我們也同樣感覺很好

  • buying an MP3 player from Apple, or a phone from Apple,

    當購買蘋果電腦 的MP3播放器,或蘋果電腦的手機

  • or a DVR from Apple.

    或蘋果電腦的DVR

  • But, as I said before, Apple's just a computer company.

    但如同我前述所說,蘋果電腦只是一家電腦公司

  • There's nothing that distinguishes them

    結構上沒有什麼使它們與

  • structurally from any of their competitors.

    其他的競爭者不同

  • Their competitors are all equally qualified to make all of these products.

    他們的競爭者都有同樣能力做這些產品

  • In fact, they tried.

    事實上,他們試過

  • A few years ago, Gateway came out with flat screen TVs.

    幾年前,Gateway推出他們的平面電視

  • They're eminently qualified to make flat screen TVs.

    他們很明顯夠資格製造平面電視

  • They've been making flat screen monitors for years.

    他們已經做平面監視器好幾年了

  • Nobody bought one.

    沒有人買

  • Dell came out with MP3 players and PDAs,

    戴爾電腦推出mp3播放器與PDA.

  • and they make great quality products,

    他們的產品都有很好的品質

  • and they can make perfectly well-designed products --

    而且他們也能完美地製造精美設計的產品

  • and nobody bought one.

    然而沒有人買。

  • In fact, talking about it now, we can't even imagine

    事實上,現在我們說這些事,我們甚至無法想像

  • buying an MP3 player from Dell.

    從戴爾電腦買一台mp3播放器

  • Why would you buy an MP3 player from a computer company?

    為什麼你會從一家電腦公司買一台mp3播放器?

  • But we do it every day.

    但我們每天都這麼做

  • People don't buy what you do; they buy why you do it.

    人們不買你做什麼;他們買你的為什麼

  • The goal is not to do business

    目標不是

  • with everybody who needs what you have.

    與每個需要你有什麼的人在做生意

  • The goal is to do business with people

    目標是要與

  • who believe what you believe.

    那些相信你所相信的人做生意

  • Here's the best part:

    這就是最美好的部份

  • None of what I'm telling you is my opinion.

    我告訴你們的都不是我個人的意見

  • It's all grounded in the tenets of biology.

    這在生物學裡證實

  • Not psychology, biology.

    不是心理學,是生物學

  • If you look at a cross-section of the human brain, looking from the top down,

    如果你去看人腦裡的切面,從上往下看

  • what you see is the human brain is actually broken

    你看到的人腦實際上是

  • into three major components

    分成三個主要部份的

  • that correlate perfectly with the golden circle.

    這和黃金圈完美地相關

  • Our newest brain, our Homo sapien brain,

    我們最新的腦,或說我們人類的腦

  • our neocortex,

    我們的大腦皮層

  • corresponds with the "what" level.

    對應的是〞什麼〞的層次

  • The neocortex is responsible for all of our

    大腦皮層負責我們所有的

  • rational and analytical thought

    理性、分析的想法

  • and language.

    以及語言

  • The middle two sections make up our limbic brains,

    中間兩個部份組成我們腦的邊緣

  • and our limbic brains are responsible for all of our feelings,

    而我們邊緣的腦是負責所有的感情

  • like trust and loyalty.

    如信任與忠誠

  • It's also responsible for all human behavior,

    它也同時負責所有人類的行為

  • all decision-making,

    所有的決策

  • and it has no capacity for language.

    而它沒有語言的空間

  • In other words, when we communicate from the outside in,

    換句話說,當我們從外而內地溝通時

  • yes, people can understand vast amounts of complicated information

    是的,人們可以了解很多複雜的資訊量

  • like features and benefits and facts and figures.

    像是特色、好處、事實與數字

  • It just doesn't drive behavior.

    但這不能刺激行為

  • When we can communicate from the inside out,

    當我們能由內而外溝通時

  • we're talking directly to the part of the brain

    我們就正對著我們的腦說話

  • that controls behavior,

    那控制行為的腦

  • and then we allow people to rationalize it

    然後我們允許人們去分析它

  • with the tangible things we say and do.

    以我們可以說與做的可見事物

  • This is where gut decisions come from.

    這就是我們用膽識做決定的來源

  • You know, sometimes you can give somebody

    你們知道,有時候你們可以給人們

  • all the facts and figures,

    所有的事實與數字

  • and they say, "I know what all the facts and details say,

    然後他們說,〞我知道事實與細節是什麼,

  • but it just doesn't feel right."

    但就是感覺不對勁〞

  • Why would we use that verb, it doesn't "feel" right?

    為什麼我們會用這個動詞,〝感覺〞不對勁?

  • Because the part of the brain that controls decision-making

    因為管控決策的腦

  • doesn't control language.

    並不管控語言

  • And the best we can muster up is, "I don't know. It just doesn't feel right."

    而我們最多能整理出的是〝我不知道,就是覺得不對〞

  • Or sometimes you say you're leading with your heart,

    或者有時你說你隨心所欲

  • or you're leading with your soul.

    或者你跟隨你靈魂的聲音

  • Well, I hate to break it to you, those aren't other body parts

    嗯,我很不想對你說,那些都不是身體的其他部份

  • controlling your behavior.

    在控制你的行為

  • It's all happening here in your limbic brain,

    所有的發生都在你邊緣的腦裡

  • the part of the brain that controls decision-making and not language.

    是控制決策而不是語言的腦

  • But if you don't know why you do what you do,

    但如果你不知道為什麼做你正在做的事

  • and people respond to why you do what you do,

    而人們對為什麼你正在做的事有反應

  • then how will you ever get people

    然後甚至是你如何贏得人們

  • to vote for you, or buy something from you,

    的選票或買你的東西

  • or, more importantly, be loyal

    或更重要的,忠實

  • and want to be a part of what it is that you do.

    而且想成為你正在做的事的一份子

  • Again, the goal is not just to sell to people who need what you have;

    再一次,目標不是僅僅將需要你所有賣給需要的人而已

  • the goal is to sell to people who believe what you believe.

    目標是要賣東西給那些相信你所相信的事的人

  • The goal is not just to hire people

    目標不是只在雇

  • who need a job;

    那些需要工作的人

  • it's to hire people who believe what you believe.

    而是要雇用那些相信你所相信的事的人

  • I always say that, you know,

    我會一直這麼說,你知道。

  • if you hire people just because they can do a job, they'll work for your money,

    如果你雇用人僅是因為他們能做事,他們將會為了你的錢而做事

  • but if you hire people who believe what you believe,

    但如果你雇用那些相信你所相信的人們

  • they'll work for you with blood and sweat and tears.

    他們將與你工作:用血汗與淚水。

  • And nowhere else is there a better example of this

    而沒有比這個萊特兄弟

  • than with the Wright brothers.

    更好的例子了

  • Most people don't know about Samuel Pierpont Langley.

    多數人不認識Samuel Pierpont Langley.

  • And back in the early 20th century,

    在20世紀初

  • the pursuit of powered man flight was like the dot com of the day.

    追尋人類飛翔就像今天的網路公司一樣

  • Everybody was trying it.

    每個人都在嘗試

  • And Samuel Pierpont Langley had, what we assume,

    而Samuel Pierpont Langley曾經擁有,我們假設的

  • to be the recipe for success.

    成功的關鍵

  • I mean, even now, you ask people,

    我的意思是,即使現在,你去問人們

  • "Why did your product or why did your company fail?"

    〝為什麼你的產品為或什麼你的公司失敗?〞

  • and people always give you the same permutation

    而人們總會給你

  • of the same three things:

    相類似的三個原因

  • under-capitalized, the wrong people, bad market conditions.

    資金不足,不適合的人,市場情況不良

  • It's always the same three things, so let's explore that.

    總是這相同的三個原因,所以我們來研究一下

  • Samuel Pierpont Langley

    Samuel Pierpont Langley

  • was given 50,000 dollars by the War Department

    從國防部得到5萬美金

  • to figure out this flying machine.

    去研發這個飛行機器

  • Money was no problem.

    資金不是問題

  • He held a seat at Harvard

    他有哈佛大學的學位

  • and worked at the Smithsonian and was extremely well-connected;

    在Smithsonian工作而且有很好的人脈

  • he knew all the big minds of the day.

    他認識當時所有著名的知識份子

  • He hired the best minds

    他雇用最好的人才

  • money could find

    資金有管道

  • and the market conditions were fantastic.

    而市場情況呈現一片榮景

  • The New York Times followed him around everywhere,

    紐約時報跟著他到處跑

  • and everyone was rooting for Langley.

    而且每個人都為Langley加油

  • Then how come we've never heard of Samuel Pierpont Langley?

    那麼你怎麼會從沒聽過Samuel Pierpont Langley?

  • A few hundred miles away in Dayton Ohio,

    幾百英哩遠在俄亥俄州的Dayton

  • Orville and Wilbur Wright,

    萊特兄弟

  • they had none of what we consider

    他們沒有我們認為的

  • to be the recipe for success.

    成功關鍵

  • They had no money;

    他們沒有資金

  • they paid for their dream with the proceeds from their bicycle shop;

    他們用他們腳踏車店裡的現金來支付他們的夢想

  • not a single person on the Wright brothers' team

    沒有任何一個在萊特兄弟的團隊裡

  • had a college education,

    的人有大學學歷

  • not even Orville or Wilbur;

    兄弟倆都沒有

  • and The New York Times followed them around nowhere.

    而他們也沒有紐約時報的報導

  • The difference was,

    不同的是

  • Orville and Wilbur were driven by a cause,

    萊特兄弟是有個目的去驅動他們的

  • by a purpose, by a belief.

    因為目的、因為相信

  • They believed that if they

    他們相信如果他們

  • could figure out this flying machine,

    能想出這架飛行機器

  • it'll change the course of the world.

    這將改變世界的軌道

  • Samuel Pierpont Langley was different.

    Samuel Pierpont Langley 不同

  • He wanted to be rich, and he wanted to be famous.

    他想變得富有,而且他想成名

  • He was in pursuit of the result.

    他在追求結果