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Hi. Welcome back to www.engvid.com. I'm Adam. Nice to see you again. Today's lesson is for
IELTS and TOEFL students, and so because these students need a little extra practice in listening
to more natural speed English, I will speak a little bit faster. If you're a beginner
English learner, watch anyway. It's still good practice, but don't worry if I'm speaking
a little bit too fast. So more specifically, I'm going to be looking at the Writing -- Task
2, the essay of the IELTS and/or TOEFL. They're very similar. That's why I'm doing them together.
There're not big differences, but I will point them out. And what I'm doing is I'm concentrating
on the introduction today, the introduction paragraph. I'm not showing you the whole essay;
I'm just showing you the introduction. Now, you're wondering, "Why? It's just the introduction.
It's a short one, right?" No. This is probably the most important paragraph in your whole
essay. This is where you, basically, make or break your score, okay? Why? Because here
is where the reader understands what you're about to do. This is where the grader -- the
person who's giving you your score -- understands if you understood the question; understands
if you know what you're talking about; and understands if you knew how to plan well,
okay? Very, very important the first paragraph, the introduction. So what are you going to
do? Of course you're going to plan first. You're not going to start writing. Do not
write one word of your essay until you have your plan ready. Once you have your plan ready,
your essay is done. You just have to, basically, translate this plan into sentences. You're
basically going for three to five sentences. Less than three, you missed something; you
didn't do enough. More than five, you're going for words. You don't have time; don't worry
about it. Three to five -- get down what you need to get down. Get into your bodies where
you're going to be writing the most, okay? There are four questions you want to answer
in the introduction. You will already have these answers once you've planned properly,
okay? What do you want to answer? "What is the topic?" "What is the question?" "What
is your opinion?" And "What are your reasons?" These are the four things that must be included
in the introduction. Now, a lot of you think, "Well, 'topic' and
'question' is the same thing, right?" But no; they're not. This is where a lot of people
lose points because they don't realize that these are two different things. The "topic"
is the general idea of what the question is about. The "question" is, specifically, what
are you asked to do. Now, the most common type of question you will see on both the
IELTS and the TOEFL is a question that asks you to choose between two things. They want
you to choose one and argue why that one is better than the other one, or why that one
is so good. Now, what I'm going to show you today will mostly apply to these types of
questions. But if you have a question that asks you to compare and contrast two things,
keep in mind even if they ask you to compare two things, they're still going to ask you
to lean towards one of them, to choose one as better than the other, in which case you're
still going to need to give your opinion, okay?
"What is the topic?" You're going to keep this very, very general. All you're doing
is giving the idea of what the essay is about. So I know all of you have probably practiced
this question: "Is it better to live in the countryside or in the city? Explain your reasons,
giving examples, etc." Your first sentence, very, very general: What is the topic of this
question? City life? Country life? No. The topic is "where to live". So your first sentence
introduces the idea of living -- choosing a place to live. The question is then more
specific, so your sentence narrows a little bit, becomes a little bit more focused. The
question is: "Is it better in the country or the city?" Okay?
Then, you have to give your opinion. You must say, "I believe", "I think", "in my opinion".
You don't have to use these words. There're other ways to say your opinion, but if you're
not sure of those, put one of those; make it very, very clear what you're saying. This
is your thesis. This is a very specific sentence. After reading this sentence, I, the grader,
must understand which side you've chosen and what you're going to argue. And then you see
the last sentence gets a little bit more general. Why? Because you're giving your reasons. You're
not giving me details. You're giving me general reasons of why you have this opinion, okay?
So four sentences, or you can squeeze them -- you can squeeze, for example, this one
and this one. You can squeeze this one and this one and make three sentences. Or you
can add extra information. You want to make this one two sentences? Go for it. Make it
five. Don't go more than five. More than five means you've lost focus, okay? Three means
you have very good command of the language. Personally, if you can do a very strong introduction
paragraph in three sentences, it could actually be better for you than five. But three to
four -- three to five, four is the average; go for that. We're going to look at an example,
and you'll understand better what I'm talking about here.
Okay, so here's our first example. The first example... I made it a little bit more basic.
I've got four different sentences answering each question individually, okay? Just to
refresh our memories, what is the question? "Is it better to live in the city or the country?"
Or "Is it better to live in the country or the city?" Doesn't matter. So remember: I'm
starting with a very general idea of the topic. "Deciding where to live is one of life's more
difficult choices." "Where to live" -- here is your topic. Very general. Have I given
any information? No. Have I expressed an opinion? No. All I'm doing is introducing the topic.
That's all I want the reader to know: We're talking about where to live.
Next sentence. "One may opt for life in the country or the city." Now, just in case you're
not sure, "opt for" means "choose". I used "choice" here; I used "deciding" here; I want
to use as much different vocabulary as I can. "Opt for", if you know it, use it. A little
bit extra points for nice language. Okay. "One may opt for life in the country or the
city." This is your question. Country? City? Very clear. "In my opinion" -- very, very
direct and to the point. State your thesis. State what you believe. "In my opinion, life
in the city is more advantageous." -- "I choose city; it's better." That's all I want to say.
I'm answering the question. This is my stance. This is my opinion. "This is due to the fact
that the city offers better economic and social opportunities." So I'm going to present the
reader with two reasons: economic and social. Am I giving any idea what the economic reasons
are? No. Am I giving you any ideas what the social reasons are? No. They're very, very
general. I've made it a bit more general, okay? So I've answered all four questions.
I'm doing exactly what the essay's supposed to do, what the essay's asking me to do.
Now, the only thing I would suggest about this one -- again, very basic. The only thing
I would recommend you could do: Make this -- take out the period. Take out this. "In
my opinion, life in the city is more advantageous due to the fact that the city offers better
economic and social opportunities." All I did was join the last two sentences. So now,
I have a three-sentence paragraph and a little bit more complex sentence because I have more
clauses and more phrases in it. So it shows a little bit of sentence variety. And it's
very simple. All you have to do is just take out the beginning. If I want, I can just take
out the whole thing -- "due to the fact" is a good expression. Use it; remember it -- and
just put "because". If you're stuck, if you don't know another expression to show reason,
just use "because". Preferably, you don't use "because" because a thousand other people
taking the test with you are also using "because". You want to be a little bit different. You
want to stand out a little bit. But if you're panicking, if you're stuck, use "because".
Now, again, I mentioned there's a -- slight differences between TOEFL and IELTS. The only
difference is time and number of words. For IELTS, you have 40 minutes to write your essay.
TOEFL you have 30 minutes. That's -- ten minutes is a huge difference, right? You have to write
-- for IELTS, you have to write your paragraph up to -- your first paragraph, sorry -- up
to eight minutes. More than eight minutes, maybe ten with the planning, you're getting
into a bit of trouble. TOEFL, you have maybe five, six minutes to do this, right? So you
have to be a little bit quicker. You have to be better prepared. All that means is just
practice, practice, practice. Write lots of essays.
Another difference is the IELTS, you need a minimum 250 words, whereas TOEFL you need
more words, okay? So write more. If you can add another sentence but not get off topic,
put it in for the TOEFL. But I'm going to show you another example, a little bit more
complex, a little bit fancier if you want to say it, and one that I can use for a "choose
one", or a "compare and contrast and choose", okay? Let's do that.
Okay, so let's look at now -- at another example. I made this one a little bit more multipurpose,
depending on what kind of questions you're asked. If you're asked to compare and contrast,
you can use this. If you're just asked to choose between two, you can still use this,
okay? First thing you'll notice after we read it: only three sentences, but it's actually
longer than the last example, okay? First sentence: "As a person reaches adulthood,
he needs to decide on where he would prefer to live." Again: topic, "where to live". You
can introduce another topic, adulthood, because you can incorporate that into your reasons,
okay? I'm not saying much. I'm just -- my topic is still "where prefer to live". Okay.
Next: "While there are advantages to both living in the country and the city" -- so
here, I'm introducing the fact that I might be comparing. "Both have advantages" -- so
I'm going to compare these." "I believe that for economic reasons -- I have your thesis
and your main reason -- life in the city is more beneficial" -- I've chosen one. Here's
my general reason. Now, you're thinking, "Okay. Done, right?" No, because here's an example
of where you can use one reason for your whole essay. You don't have to have two reasons
-- we think. "This is because the city offers more employment opportunities, as well as
a more affordable cost of living." So now, you realize, I actually do have two reasons
under the umbrella of the one reason. Okay? So many people think, "Oh, I can't think of
ideas. I don't know what to say about this." If you can have one idea, that's fine. Split
it into two categories, right? "Economic reasons": jobs and cost of living. It's cheaper to live
in the city because more people, more things come in, etc.
Now, a couple of things to keep in mind. One, I only have three sentences. This is a very
-- this sentence, this second one is a very long, complex sentence. If you can write a
sentence that has more than one clause, more than one phrase, you're going to get bonus
points because it show a very strong command of the language, okay? I'm doing three things
here almost. I'm showing that I'm going to talk about the advantages; I'm giving you
my opinion; and I'm giving you my major reason all in one sentence. And then, I'm getting
a little bit more specific how I'm going to split this up.
Now, another thing to keep in mind -- two things to keep in mind: One, whatever -- however
way or whatever order you list your reasons, make sure that the body paragraph follows
suit. So I talked about employment opportunities first, my next paragraph -- if I'm comparing,
then the paragraphs are by comparing. Then the next one is employment opportunities and
cost of living. If I'm only making a choice, then my first body paragraph is about employment;
my second body paragraph is about cost of living, okay? But keep that in mind. If you're
comparing and then choosing: first paragraph, make the comparisons; second paragraph, first
reason for your choice; third paragraph, second reason for your choice. Or if you want, if
you have enough reasons -- you're going to need more than one -- you can compare throughout
the body: Each paragraph compares one point. "The city offers more employment opportunities.
In the countryside, there's a limited number of jobs because there're not that many people
-- there aren't that many people.", etc. in the next one.
Another thing I want to mention: Some of you may be angry with me right now because I said
"he", okay? "He" is okay. "She" is okay. Please do not do this. Do not do: "he/she", he/she,
him/her, him/her, himself/herself". It -- (A) it doesn't count as extra words, and (B) this
gets it really, really annoying for the reader. If you're a girl, say "she". If you're a guy,
say "he". If you're a guy and you want to say "she", say "she". If you're a girl and
you want to say "he", say "he". But only choose one. Don't worry about it. You're not going
to lose points for this, okay? Now, again, I can't stress enough how important
it is to practice writing. And ideally, get someone to check it for you and give you feedback,
okay? But write your essays, and go over them. Make sure all your pronouns are okay, all
your prepositions are okay, your subjects and your verbs agree. Try to have different
vocabulary, different sentence structures, okay? And practice, practice, practice. When
you start preparing for the IELTS and the TOEFL, start with the essay. Learn to write
first. Because that takes the longest time to improve, and it's usually where people
get their lowest score on the test, okay? Anyway, go to www.engvid.com. There will be
a quiz there to give you a little bit more practice with this. And of course, go to my
YouTube channel and subscribe there if you like. And come back again real soon. Bye.
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托福、雅思寫作技巧 (IELTS & TOEFL Writing Task 2 - The Introduction)

24711 分類 收藏
NoahHuang 發佈於 2014 年 3 月 8 日
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